The Languages of Taeis

This is all the material I have on Taean languages and culture.



Eiler Erdoten



Eiler Erdoten

Original-Received: from by Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:11 CDT
Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line
Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:09 CDT
From: Geoff Tuffli 
To: jrk
Subject: Taeis: Ohs - linguistics


    jh  s as in measure (in standard linguistical terms, it is zh)
    jn  said as a dipthong
    lj  said as a dipthong
    a   ah
    o   oh
    e   eh
    i   ee
    u   oo
    oh  said like "ho" except said deeper in your throat, with
            a stronger "oh" sound, somewhat like huffing the
    ssh said as a dipthong, start by making an "ss" sound then
            merge it into a "sh" sound
    ae  ah-eh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds
    eo  eh-oh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds
    ie  ee-eh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds
    ue  oo-eh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds
    x   z, the only word this is used in in modern usage is
            "xund", or "unicorn"
    g   g as in goat
    ts  ts as in cats
    th  always soft, as in thin (as opposed to the th in there)
    c   gutteral ch is in the Scottish pronunciation of ch in
            loch, a very uncommon sound
    ah  said like "ha" except huffing slightly as you say it,
            making it softer
    ih  said like "he" except huffing slightly as you say it,
            making it softer
    j   j as in jester

    NOTE: there is no stress, pitch is used to emphasize or convey
        subtler emotion

    The language has no real distinction between a noun and an adjective.
An -i ending is usually the ending of a word or compound word. So, two words,
huni (meaning horse, association with horses, or horse-like) and dasi (meaning
soldier, fighter, or warrior) could be combined to hundasi or dashuni (note
that "dashuni" would be pronounced das-huni, not dash-uni). Hundasi, thus,
means horse-warrior, or a mounted soldier.

    In addition, there is no real pluralization, so hundasi could mean
a single horseman or an army of them, or horsemen in general. Expressing
plurals relies on attaching to it a word indicating number, either the exact
number, or, more commonly, a general one roughly analogous to English's
"few", "some", and "many", though somewhat more precise.

    Compound words can be made up of more than two parts. So, the word
raki (meaning bow) could be added to hundasi to form the word "hunrakdasi"
or "rakhundasi" or "hundasraki". In actual practice, it should be noted that
only one of these possible combinations is used for a particular word. So,
a horseman is always referred to as "hundasi", not as "dashuni", though if
you were to use the latter compound, you would be understood, although it
would sound odd to the listener.

    Generally, those words which do not take the -i ending are arranged
in a slightly different manner. They are grouped as if they were an adjective
in front of a noun. This is also sometimes used to emphasize a particular
aspect of the compound word. So, the commander of the horsemen in an army
(tarni means lord, approximately) would likely be referred to as the Tarn
Hundasi. Note that in this case, the -i ending was stripped from tarn. The
most relevant aspect of the compound word, if one exists, is placed near the
beginning, so Tarn Hundasi would emphasize that the more important aspect
was the Tarn-ishness, and only after that they were of horsemen. One could
also call such a person a hundastarni, with this de-emphasizing the fact that
they are a commander, and placing more importance on their connection with

    Verbs do not have, by themselves, any tense or reference to the
subject. There is one form, and the only way you can tell its tense is by
context or by the presence of another word that indicates when it happens.
Noun/Adjectives can be made into verbs by the addition of an ending "sh",
that, if the Noun/Adjective ends in a consonent, is instead "ash". Forming
a verb this way usually indicates "the process of". So the word for mask,
"sha", could be made into the verb "to mask" by adding -th to form "shash".
    In important note is that there is no verb "to be", rather in the
absence of another verb, it is assumed.

    All verbs, even those without Noun/Adjective roots, end in -sh.

    The word order is: subject - (indirect object) - object - verb
(Poetry, by the way, is almost always designed so as to rhyme from the
_beginning_ of a phrase, rather than the end.) Clauses can be added on
one after another with only a short pause seperating them from one another.

    Adverbs are not used at all. To indicate, for example, that an
action is done "quickly", one merely adds the necessary word onto the
subject. "Kabi", meaning "quickly", added to "oshash" or "to become
civilized", would create the verb "to become civilized quickly", or

    The following is a list of the vocabulary that I have come up with.
I intend to update it and expand it as I have time.

dubogula - dragon
xund - unicorn
preothai - a non-poisonous spider about 1 foot in diameter that builds
        amazingly intricate and extensive webs.
uma - a large sea turtle about 12 feet in diameter that has been used as
        a beast or burden.
kapati - a flying, poisonous snake. The poison is paralytic.
huni - horse
pai - a small bird, somewhat like a sparrow
resethi - seagull
likai - mouse
bothark - a huge, lumbering omnivorous creature about 20 feet long covered
        by huge bony plates and several lines of spikes on its face.
        Though not bright, it is exceedly vicious, and very strong.
        They are sometimes used in much the same way as bulls are in
kedishi - jackal
prei - spider
kapi - snake
manisi - cat
tibi - fish
jhasi - human
kebi - rat
sasshai - sheep
elenbi - cow/bull
nename - goat
pochai - pig/hog

kutari - a long-sleeved tunic commonly worn by nobles or on formal occassions.
        Usually has woven into it stylized representations of animals
        or other simpler designs. It extends over the hips.
panakutari - a short-sleeved kutari that is designed to be worn with a sath.
sath - a white dress-like garment worn underneath a panakutari. It extends
        to the wrists and down to the ankles. While it can be worn
        by both sexes, it is usually only worn by women. Like a kutari,
        it is slid over the head.
umari - pants. They split on either side for a few inches, and necessitate an
        underbelt to hold them on. An overbelt is usually worn over
        the kutari itself.
tasmatashi - soft leather boots of a kind commonly worn in the Ohs Empire. The
        soles of the feet are made of specially hardened leather that
        is segmented into several overlapping pieces to make the entire
        footwear easier to walk in. It can go as low as the ankle or
        as high as just below the knee.

sejn - cliffs or escarpment
marn - sea or ocean
separai - swamp, fens, or marshland
lebai - water
ani lebai - river
ani - movement or flow
korgo - earth or soil
batami - wind
shimiasi - sand storm
iasi - sand
gari - rock
ejhakiladani - inferno
ejhake - warmth or heat
dani - fire
potam - fertile soil or loam
talati - forest or woodland
lati - wood

soti - rust red or blood red
tosoti - orange
kosoti - orangish-pink
ketina - light blue
lei - deep blue
paryani - yellow
ithilyai - purple
gloi - black
parai - white
shintisayaki - gold
kothoi - tan or brown
kelji - light green
hanalji - forest green

raki - longbow
mavi - skilled or skillful
mavraki - elite longbow soldiers of the Ohs Empire
dasi - soldier, warrior, or fighter
hundasi - elite dragoons of the Ohs Empire
shei - weapon used by the hundasi, it is a double-ended sword-spear with
        four spikes angling out of a right angle below the blade
        on one of the ends.
losshi - army (100,000 soldiers or 10 daumshi)
dalosshi - host (all of the losshi raised for a campaign)
losshil - grand host
pakimi - battlegroup (10 soldiers)
dapakimi - cohort (100 soldiers or 10 pakimi)
umshi - legion (1000 soldiers or 10 dapakimi)
daumshi - regiment (10,000 soldiers or 10 umshi)
imnak - sword (two-handed grip, relatively short lengthed blade)
thei - axe used in the Ohs Empire, has a triangular blade, one side of which
        lays face-on the shaft.
panathei - axe the size of a small dagger
korojhi - spear, used only in the Imperial armies, not in any of the House
yomak - blood

-l/il - the most
-ka - lacking or without

atana - year of 320 days
mesthia - time it takes for Ea to pass by a particular point on the Jovian
        planet it circles - works out to about 40 days.
para - week of 8 days
yundi - day

radi - dancer or entertainer
mavi - skilled
mavradi - acrobatic dancer-mimes who wear masks and are noted for their
        incredible skill at dancing/acrobatics and their habit of
        never speaking and going masked most of the time.
sha - mask
jhugoloroiri - travelling jugglers/stage-magicians
papadai - the colored rubber balls used by jhugoloroiri in their acts
foditei - court bard, serves a respected position, often also a Lord's
        advisor, and often as well as the historian and even at
        times as a teacher of ethics and morality.
tastraba - drum
pelipe - flat-harp

shadu - spirit, soul, or animus
shaduka - one who is without soul, souless
sae - mana, the intangible power omnipresent that sorcery taps as a source
        of enery
saemavi - a sorceror
saemavil - the most competent sorceror; the title is usually reserved for
        the ritual-master of the House of the Unicorn.

panai - short or brief
spiristi - tall, high, or proud
spiristika - humble
sshasi - happy or pleased
sshasika - grim
chayuli - angry
chayulil - enraged
chayulika - calm
falji - long distance or time
kabi - quickness or quickly

kohn - home, den, or place-of-retreat
vatani - fortified place, castle, or wall
amani - road
zelati - bridge

    PARTS of the BODY:
eshi - back of head or skull
patani - face
mei - eyes
saspi - ears
koton - belly or abdomen
garaki - chest or ribs
haspiki - fingers or hand
temdi - arms
karei - tongue
listhimiki - legs

hami - me, I, us, or we
tomi - you
kari - he, she, it, them, or they

   ** To make pronouns possessive, merely integrate them into
      object that is being possessed. So "my horse" would be
      said, "hunhami" **

oi - this or these
ai - that or those

   ** These can be used alone, as in, "I want THAT," or they
      can be used in combination with a word. So in the phrase,
      "I want THAT TUNIC," the object would be "kutaroi" **

kanaputai - what
manaraputai - who
tokiputai - where
hokonoputai - why
patanaputai - when
teloijhuputai - how or in what way
na - ending after a verb to indicate that the sentence is a query

   ** "Whose" would be formed by combining "manaraputai" and 
      the appropriate object. So "whose house" would be
      "kohnmanaraputai" **

   ** "Where is this", for example, would be "tokiputai" and
      "oi" for "This is where?" or "Oi tokiputai na?" **

pa - and
ka - or
chan - if
eba - no or wrong ("nothing" would be "ebai")
kaba - yes or correct ("something" would be "kabai")

kot - while
sham - to
peloki - from
chessh - within
ben - on
taman - under
kras - over
yas - around

   ** These all function as prepositions, except
      for that they all are placed at the end of
      a word or clause rather than the beginning
      as it is in English **

charn - before or earlier (past)
karn - after or later (future)
tok - now (present)
barana - still

lanami - sleep or sleeping
gebrani - growing
panagebrani - shrinking
palari - falling
ko - thought or thinking
loi - entrance or entering
lamani - gift or giving
ahsi - glowing
ahsika - dampened
manai - possessing or holding (implies non-permanence and/or non-ownership)
matai - pregnant
esatsi - sick
elebi - love or loving
nalabi - doing
dardani - sight or seeing
pelebi - play or playing
ueni - movement or moving

   ** Distinguishing whether someone "is grown" as opposed to
      someone "growing" is done by using different sequences.
      "Growing" is used as a verb, by adding "-sh" to the root.
      That someone "is grown" is done by using the "grown" as
      the object and adding a present tensesual marker ("tok").
      So, to say that "I am grown" or "I am grown, now" you
      would say, "Tok hami gebrani". "I am growing" would be
      said, "Hami gebranish". **

pahn - bowl
ohrti - tong-like eating utensil used in the Ohs Empire
daparathei - knife (intended mostly for an eating utensil)
borga - horns
kepichi - saddle
hadri - map
pohthi - banner

More Grammar:

    Possessives: Possessives can be accomplished in two different ways.
The first has already been explained, and is only used with pronouns. Horse,
"huni" and me or my, "hami" can be combined in this way to mean "my horse",
or "hunhami". The second way is slightly more complex.
    The expression 'la- is stuck after the possessor and before the
object. Furthermore, the -i ending on the possessor is deleted (which is
where the ' comes from. So, "my horse" could, in addition to "hunhami", be
expressed by saying: ham'la-huni. This can be extended even farther, for
example, if you wanted to say "my horse's saddle" you could say either
"hunham'la-kepichi" or "ham'la-hun'la-kepichi".
    In cases where the noun does not end in -i, there are two ways to
deal with this, depending upon whether the word ends with "la" already or
with some other ending. If the word ends with "la", such as in the word for
dragon, or "dubogula", than the 'la- expression is changed to be-. To indicate
"the dragon's horns" you would thus say: dubogulabe-borga. Note that the
apostraphe is not used, as there is nothing to be replaced.
    In all other cases where the word ends in something other than -i,
the expression becomes merely la-. So the phrase for "the drummer's horse"
would be: potastrabala-huni.
    The expression 'la- is in fact an expression of location, as opposed
to expressed ownership. If you wish to make the distinction between owning
something as opposed to merely possessing it, use the empression 'za- in place
of 'la-. In cases where the word ends in "za" already, the za- is retained,
unlike 'la-.

    Examples: to say "The horse you are riding is mine" in order of
            most frequently used to least...

        1) Huntomi ham'za-huni.
        2) Tom'la-huni ham'za-huni.
        3) Huntomi hunhami.
        4) Tom'la-huni hunhami.

Vocabulary (continued):

ea - the name of the world
pelava - the name of the yello-green gas giant planet that Ea circles
zara - the sun (it appears smaller than our own due to the distance)
puloi - the small moon that orbits between Ea and Pelava
krasshei - the third moon of Pelava (including Ea)
mern - the fourth moon of Pelava (including Ea)
merna - the fifth moon of Pelava (including Ea)
toarn - a moon

ebai - nothing, none, or zero
sor - one
hak - two
be - three
nem - four
pajhni - five
lar - six
laman - seven
sutei - eight
fan - nine
osshla - ten
pulassha - hundred
hinasshra - thousand
kloi - (multiplier indicative)

    ** Examples: 10 osshla
         15 osshla pajhni
         32 be-kloi-osshla hak
         109 pulassha fan
         820 sutei-kloi-pulassha hak-kloi-osshla
         3116 be-kloi-hinasshra pulassha osshla lar **

    ** Examples of Counting: Four moons.
         There are four moons.
         (Moons four are.)
         Toran nem.

         Look at the four moons.
         (You moons-four look.)
         Tomi torannem meish.
             NOTE: "meish" is "mei" (eye) + "sh" (verb-ending) **



Eiler Erdoten
Original-Received: from by Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:36 CDT
Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line
Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:36 CDT
From: Geoff Tuffli 
To: jrk
Subject: Taeis - Petrocea - linguistics

Cather/Rostar    [ P E T R O C E A ]

The Petrocean tongue is a very rich tongue, also very ancient.
It is descended directly from the tongue of the Elementals, which
are so much a part of life in Petrocea. This is by no means a
complete dictionary. I only took random words or words I found
I needed to know for MUSH purposes and translated them into
Petrocean. More will come out later. As it stands, here is the 
structure of this file:

I. Alphabet
   A. Pronunciation
   B. Vowels
II. Sentence Structure
III. Dictionary
     A. Nouns
     B. Verbs
     C. Descriptive Terms
        1) Adjectives/Adverbs
        2) Colors
        3) Numbers
        4) Shapes
IV.  Special
     A. Clothing
     B. Weapons

I hope to have the following finished in two days or less:
Body parts
Weather expressions
Magic-specific words



Letter/Combination      English Counterpart
fl                              sh - shoe
sh                              ss - hiss
c                               hard c - cake
ee                              long a - make
a                               short o - pop
o                               always long o - toad
oa                              unpronouncable by native 
ua                              oy - boy
e                               long e - teeth
ea                              short e - bed
ar                              er - helper
aa                              short a - cat
uh                              oo - foot
que                             kay - okay
g                               between two vowels, hard - give
                                otherwise, soft - gel
gh                              z - jazz

List of Petrocean Vowels:

                     Sentence Structure

Sentence structure is very similar to English:
Subject Verb D.O. I.O.

Brief listing of Nouns:

Eastern Kingdoms - Shal'Pafl'Pufer
Iniel - Eanual
Ohs Empire - ksoafl
Petrocea - Shal'Manto'Armekt
admiral - armekt'ua
air - altist
animal - mir-pe'lloute
bay - shal'ua
beast - llout
being(alive) - viv'pekt
being(dead) - pek'viv-pe
body - ksuh
boy - fej'oxta
brain - rebma
captain - pefl'ua
child - pekt'fej
conjurer - falist'oxta
conjuress - falist'fert
country - shalkt
district - shal'keep'mir-pe
duchess - keep
duchy - shal'keep
duke - keep
element - manto
elemental - mantist
emperor - armekt
empire - shal'armekt
empress - armekt
female - cur
fire - ertist
general - kaat'shal
girl - fej'fert
hill - alt
horse - lloute'ak
house - cree
king - pefl
kingdom - shal'pefl
lake - mir-pe'uaksuh
land - shal
lord - kaat
mage - isti
male - oxta
man - cur'oxta
merchant - perst
monster - lloute'mir
mountain - elst
ocean - uaksuh
person - pekt
queen - pefl
river - ki'mir'ua
rock - rull
sailor - pekt'ua
sea - mir'uaksuh
soldier - kaat'pekt
spirit - reest
stone - shal'tist
stream - ki'ua
thing - stu
tool - stu'ilte
toy - stu'ilte-pe
tree - arb
wagon - racosh
warlock - marist'oxta
water - uatist
wind - skept
witch - marist'fert
wizard - parist'oxta
wizardress - parist'fert
woman - cur'fert

Many of these nouns are compound nouns, formed by tacking a modifier
onto it. When a noun(or any word) has a modifier, the modifier is
added with a ' between it and the word being modified. Also, some of
them have the -pe suffix, usually denoting either 'not' or 'opposite'.

In formal Petrocean, singular nouns must be accompanied by a -cu prefix.
In normal speech, the prefix is not necessary.

Plural nouns _always_ require the del- prefix.

Brief Listing of Verbs:

ask - cibelsep
banish - peltrek
be - chotel
be gone/be empty - chokitel
be sick/ill - oskitel
befriend - fiskatosep
build - darotrek
burn - kutirek
create - mirrek
curse/swear - mestlesep
destroy - atarsrek
die/be dead - wortel
dislike - akeltsep
do - nitorek
drop - telrek
fall - quelrek
fight - risktsep
force - neftarsep
forget - stapistel
frown - fastrek
get/pick up - aspirorek
give - barsep
go - kirek
hate - petairsep
hit - faradsep
kick - peltarsep
kill - trakfrek
kneel - tostrek
know - kalitel
learn - skoiestel
like - remasep
live/be alive - vivtel
lose - takirosep
love - dopaltsep
order - fagelrek
promise/take an oath - parsep
receive - tarosep
remember - bouritel
request - gaspirsep
ride - aksep
run - akenrek
say - sotesep
send - karrek
sit - aritofrek
smile - amonrek
speak - auktsep
stand - porek
stay/be still - belarotel
summon - astilrek
talk - flatleesep
understand - paskittel
walk - pirek
want - desitel
win - astasep
wish - minorek
write - talsrek

There are 3 basic infinitive suffixes in Petrocean:
-tel - Usually a state of being something.
-sep - Normally a verb describing interaction between two things/people.
-rek - Usually involves action and/or change.

Verbs can be modified by adverbs, discussed in the next section, in the
same way as nouns can be modified by adjectives...tacking the modifier
onto the word with an '.

Verb Conjugation:
Infinitive  Present  Past(recent)  Past(distant)  Future(near) 
-tel        below    -tal          -til           -tol          -tyl
-rek        below    -rak          -rik           -rok          -ryk
-sep        below    -sap          -sip           -sop          -syk

Present conjugations:
Infinitive   I     You(s)   He   We   You(p)   They   All   None
-tel       *drop*  -es      -lu  -no  -esh     -ku    -te   -ne
-rek       -j      -es      -li  -nu  -esh     -ke    -te   -ne
-sep       *drop*  -es      -ly  -ny  -esh     -ki    -te   -ne

Brief listing of Adjectives/Adverbs:

alive/live - viv
alone - toskep
always - temarel
angry - kestal
apparent - crestal
asleep - cembal
asleep - cembel
awake - ferst
bad - narom
bare - fantask
brave - nelros
childish - fejet
cold - erst-pe
confused - retalp
correct - margam
courageous - colfe
customary - alemsanc
dead - viv-pe
difficult - bresk
disobedient - mistar-pe
dry - uast-pe
early - sant
easy - atil
expected - turin
fast - rost
fat - antok
female - fert
good - skal
grand - lespar
great - makt
handsome - grella
happy - telk
heroic - bacor
hot - erst
imperial - amektal
incorrect - margan-pe
large - mir
late - polst
long - relt
loud - roist
magical - istil
male - oxta
mandatory - sutme
mature - curet
merciful - retolk
mighty - cather
never - peftar
noble - pijal
noticeable - diphast
obedient - mistar
obvious - retob
often - pretain
old - dcur
popular - tolnemehar
pretty - telsa
quick - aresta
quiet - falt
religious - vlak
repulsive - tolk
requested - hutmel
royal - peflat
royal - peflat
sad - tel-pe
sad - telk-pe
scared - pralom
seldom - pretain-pe
short - relt-pe
silent - famen
skinny - porast
slow - rost-pe
small - mir-pe
smart - ilt
sorry - ceralt
stupid - ilt-pe
successful - bekare
surprised - mastalor
terrible - vesarm
together - lotok
traditional - reestam
trustworthy - galtep
ugly - comsel
unsuccessful - bekare-pe
upset - simekta
wet - uast
young - fej

Adverbs are formed quite simply. To form an adverb, you simply add a
-ty suffix to the adjective. :)


The Petroceans acknowledge only the most basic of colors, with different
variations on each, usually using 'dark' or 'light'. The dark/light
modifier is 'telpuh'. It goes before the color for light, and after the
color for dark.


Red - plok
Orange - sur
Green - felt
Blue - talt
Purple - ski
Black - skert
White - tou

Bright red - telpuh'plok
Dark purple - ski'telpuh

NOTE: Colors always come _after_ the noun they modify.


The Petroceans follow a base ten number system, similar to our own. The
fact that it is base ten, however, does not mean it isn't complicated as
hell. Only the well educated in Petrocea are able to say a number out
loud that is above 100,000 or so. Here is a brief overview of the
numbering system, with examples.

0 - nal
1 - fel
2 - kiera
3 - ney
4 - kra
5 - eli
6 - mei
7 - tefl
8 - nau
9 - prest
10 - gou
100 - gounal
1000 - karpe
1,000,000 - toram

13 - gou-ney (10 + 3)
20 - kiera`gou (2 * 10)
46 - kra`gou-mei [(4 * 10) + 6]
105 - gounal-eli (100 + 5)
620 - mei`gounal-kiera`gou [(6 * 100) + (2 * 10)]
5074 - eli`karpe-tefl`gou-kra [(5 * 1000) + (7 * 10) + 4]
408,692 - kra`gounal`karpe-nau`karpe-mei`gounal-prest`gou-kiera
          [(4 * 100 * 1000) + (8 * 1000) + (6 * 100) + (9 * 10) + 2]
37,329,864 -
[(3 * 10 * 1,000,000) + (7 * 1,000,000) + (300 * 1000) + (2 * 10 * 1000) +
(9 * 1000) + (8 * 100) + 6 * 10) + 4]

Yeah, I know it's attrocious. Too bad, this is IT. :)

The word for shape in Petrocean is 'fig'. A shape's name can usually be
determined by taking the number of sides the shape has and making it
a modifier of the noun 'fig'. Fig'kra...shape with four sides. The word
for Square and Rectangle is the same.


Square - fig'kra
Rectangle - fig'kra
Circle - fig'temar
Triangle - fig'ney
Octagon - fig'nau
Pentagon - fig'eli
Hexagon - fig'mei
Shape - fig

Following is a brief list of clothing unique to Petrocea, and somewhat
popular at this time.

Artola - Crown, made of gold for Emperor, silver for Kings.
Baskir - Sweeping robes worn by many males of high rank. Usually either
         red, blue, or black.
Entamokt - Loose fitting tunic worn by men.
Pelartan - Hose commonly worn by men.
Cormaski - Head dress worn by some Warlocks in place of a hood. It 
           completely covers any hair, but the face is much more visible
           than when a hood is worn.
Dampush - Pants worn by men...not as tight as hose, but not as loose
          as retaska.
Retaska - Very loose fitting pants for men.
Mofler - A commonly worn hooded robe that affords protection from
         the elements. Quite popular among sailors.
Bask - Multi-purpose, unisex hooded robe.
Celtisca - Long flowing dress for women. Usually only worn for 
           ceremonial-type occasions.
Nekt - Shorter dress, worn among women of the 'common folk'.
Tuhma - Loose tunic worn by some women.
Roakeshi - Loose pants, normall worn with a tuhma.
Peataruh - Black veil worn by women guilty of adultery.


A short list of some weapons used in Petrocea. Obviously there are quite
a few other weapons used, these are just a few of them.

quetash - Single edged short sword. Not good for much other than
          hacking away continually at your opponent's vitals.
matergh - Sharp short sword, very popular among sailors.
tuhgosh - Dagger, very effective when thrown correctly. Used often
          by assassins.
yeefor - Deadly, small dagger popular among the few magi who deign
         to carry material defenses.
gaalpurna - Sword wiith a long, curved blade and a decorative hilt.
terque - Light sword, with a long straight blade. Forged perfectly for
         use by the Imperial Guard.
noktar - Spear carried by foot soldiers of some duchies.
noktpuh - Lance popular with cavalry in some duchies.
capoflt - Two-handed sword, not widely used by anyone in particular
          except perhaps mercenaries.
Tenaske - All purpose shield, used almost universally throughout the


Eiler Erdoten

Original-Received: from by Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:52:26 CDT
Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line
Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:52:25 CDT
From: Geoff Tuffli 
To: jrk
Subject: Taeis: Eiler Erdoten - linguistics


a  - fATHer                  b  - bet
e  - Elephant                c  - SHeep
i  - bIt                     d  - Dog
o  - bOtch                   f  - Father
u  - lUnch                   g  - Goat
                             h  - THud
aa - YAk                     j  - aZure
ae - JAm                     k  - baCK
ai - sAY                     l  - Laugh
ao - JAil                    m  - Mother
au - lAUrel                  n  - Never
                             p  - Pet
ea - YEs                     r  - Rain
ee - JElly                   s  - Sane
ei - sEA                     t  - Tap
eo - EOn                     v  - Very
eu - EUnuch

ia - YIp
ie - JIm
ii - EYE
io - YIkes
iu - tissUE

oa - YOlk
oe - JOlly
oi - tOE
oo - mOOn
ou - cOUgh

ua - YOung
ue - JUly
ui - YOU
uo - tOUgh
uu - cOW

ya - YEAH (used only in one word, "ya" - thing)


Ieo - (I, masculine)      Iea - (I, feminine)
Nieo - (You, masculine)   Niea - (You, feminine)
Aeo - He
Aea - She
Ae  - It

Ieon - (We, masculine)    Iean - (We, feminine)   Ien - (We, mixed gender)
Nieon - (You, masculine)  Niean - (You, feminine) Nien - (You, mixed gender)
Aeon - (They, masculine)
Aean - (They, feminine)
Aen  - (They, mixed gender or neuter)

k'ieo/k'iea - my, mine     k'ieon/k'iean/k'ien - our, ours
kor nieo/kor niea - your, yours
k'aeo - his                k'aeon - their, theirs (masculine)
k'aea - her, hers          k'aean - their, theirs (feminine)
k'aen - its                k'aen  - their, theirs (mixed gender or neuter)


Ois teigat k'aen.          This is their boat.
                           This boat is theirs.
                           This boat belongs to them.

Oiten teigat k'ieo.        Those are my boats.
      or                   Those boats are mine.
Oiten teigat k'iea.        Those boats belong to me.

The phrase "Teigaten k'iea" is NOT equivalent to the phrase
"Iea aya teigaten".  Even though both literally mean
"I have some boats", the first phrase implies OWNERSHIP, while
the second implies physical POSSESSION.

"Iea aya teigaten k'iea." is a phrase which indicates both ownership
and physical possession.


Ois   - this   Oit   - that
Oisen - these  Oiten - those


Toit   - what          Examples:
Tekeme - who           Taia oisen? = Whose are these?
Tena   - where         Tekeme oit? = Who is that?
Taia   - whose         Toit ois?   = What is this?
Teile  - why
Teolui - when
Temaga - how


elg - and (for joining two words or phrases only)
eln - and (separates words in a spoken series)
elb - and (used before the last word in a spoken series)
eli - and (used for joining two numbers only)
elh - and (separates numbers in a spoken series)
eld - and (used before the last number in a spoken series of numbers)
glaa - if
ouso - or (exculsive)
ouse - or (inclusive)
da - not
d'na - no
d'naya - nothing
ber - false
ana - yes
rei - true
verb root + cai = "place" of verb, e.g. geicai = "place of healing"
pronoun/noun + na = "place" of pronoun/noun = Ieana = "my home"
kor - possessive "of" (becomes k' before vowels)
hi - with
sle - else
keir - large, great, big
aor  - small, tiny, insignificant


loeth - before
laseth - after
vrara - forever
gese - for a short time, brief


u  - but
tine - while
ol - to
e - from
ni - on
na - in
ra - of (non-possessive)


Verb root + nne = infinitive form of the verb

Verb root + p (ap)   = gerund
Verb root + t (at)   = noun derivative
Verb root + r (ar)   = adjective derivative
Verb root + s (as)   = adverb derivative

Verb root + re (are) = past tense (Standard/Informal form)
Verb root + ro (aro) = future tense (Standard/Informal form)

r (ra) + verb root = passive voice

-eo               = flag for masculine "I"
-ea               = flag for feminine "I"
-eon              = flag for masculine "We"
-ean                         feminine  "We"
-en                          mixed "We"
-no (-ano)                   masculine "You"
-na (-ana)                   feminine "You"
-non (-anon)                 masculine "You" (plural)
-nan (-anan)                 feminine "You" (plural)
-nen (-anen)                 mixed "You"
-ao                          He
-aa                          She
-ae                          It
-aon                         masculine "They"
-aan                         feminine "They"
-aen                         mixed "They"

cal    Tense marker for "present"
recal  Tense marker for "past"
rocal  Tense marker for "future"

Note:  There are several intermediate tense markers, i.e. before and
after, but the three markers above are the ONLY ones to determine
the tense "flavoring" of the entire phrase or sentence.

Sample conjugation:  AIANNE = "to have", "to hold"

verb root: aia
gerund :   aiap
noun derivatives: aiat - coin/money (plural: aiaten)
                  aiart = pet, possession
                  aiarya = pet, possession (term of endearment)
                  There are several more derivatives!!!!
adjective: aiar
adverb: aias

I.  Standard (Informal)  Conjugation:
Verbs conjugated in the standard/informal manner are hard coded for tense
as well as for voice.  The passive voice is RARELY used in standard/informal.

Also, pronouns may or not precede a conjugated verb in standard/informal
form.  As a general rule, they DO precede in talking or writing to
non-intimates and DO NOT in talking/writing to intimates.  Conjugated
verbs without pronoun precedents are hard-coded for person.

    Present Tense:

    a) With pronoun precedent

       Ieo/Ie'aia         I have
       Ieon/Iean/Ien aia   We have
       Nieo/Nie'aia        You have
       Nieon/Niean/Nien aia You (plural) have
       Aeo/Ae'aia/Ae aia   He/She/It has
       Aeon/Aean/Aen aia   They have

    b) Without pronoun precedent

       aiaeo/aiaea          I have
       aiaeon/aiaean/aiaen  We have
       aiano/aiana          You have
       aianon/aianan/aianen You (plural) have
       aiaao/aiaaa/aiaae    He/she/it has
       Aiaaon/aiaaan/aiaaen They have

    Past Tense:

    a)  With pronoun precedent

       Ieon/Iean/Ien aiare
       Nieo/Niea aiare
       Nieon/Niean/Nien aiare
       Aeo/Ae'aiare/Ae aiare
       Aeon/Aean/Aen aiare

    b) Without pronoun precedent


    Future Tense:

    a) With pronoun precedent

       Ieon/Iean/Ien aiaro
       Nieon/Niean/Nien aiaro
       Aeo/Ae'aiaro/Ae aiaro
       Aeon/Aean/Aen aiaro

    b) Without pronoun precedent


 II.  Non-Standard (Formal) Conjugation
Verbs conjugated in the non-standard/formal manner are hard coded for ONLY
voice.  And, voice is ALWAYS passive in this form.

Tense is "soft-coded"; a tense marker is put forth either as part of
a sentence, or as a statement all to itself.  The first style is
characteristic of dialogue, while the second is of formal writings and
decrees.  The presented tense marker 'flavors' all of the conjugated verbs
which follow it and come before another tense marker (which will ALWAYS
be one which will change the tense....if it isn't, it's HORRIBLE GRAMMAR)

Pronouns ALWAYS precede a conjugated verb in non-standard/informal form.
Therefore, verbs conjugated in this form do not require pronoun flags.
Note:  The following conjugation is "general formal"; used by social

"Very formal" or "Ceremonial" would call for the pronouns being
substituted by titles ("very formal") or by Servant/Master

Ieo/Iea raia                   had by me
Ieon/Iean/Ien raia             had by us
Nieo/Niea raia                 had by you
Nieon/Niean/Nien raia          had by you (plural)
Aeo/Aea/Ae raia                had by him/her/it
Aeon/Aean/Aen raia             had by them


acinne    - to accept; to take (after being offered)
          acit - small refreshment offered by host (hors d'oeuvre)
aianne    - to have; to hold
aginne    - to hide; to conceal
alemnne   - to shine (reflect light)
          alemat - moon
ateinne   - to enter
          ateit - door, gate
buenne    - to multiply (numbers); to reproduce; to give birth
          buer - pregnant (female); fertile (cropland, pasture)
danne     - to add (numbers); to increase; to grow
deinne    - to descend; to fall
chenne    - to enclose; to encircle;
          chet - circle
ecolnne   - to give; to offer
eilenne   - to be (sentient beings)
eprinne   - to exchange
erdonne   - to speak; to talk; to express
          erdot - word; erdoten - LANGUAGE
erondenne - (to make/work) magic; to enchant (magically)
          erondet - magic, enchantment, illusion
          erondeao/erondeaa - magician, enchanter, illusionist
          keir erondeao/keir erondeaa - "skillful magician" (wizard)
          Eronder Daerao/Eronder Daeraa= "Magician" (title)
          Keis Eronder Daerao/Keis Eronder Daeraa = "Wizard" (title)
genne     - to heal
geunne    - to steal
glinne    - to recognize; to identify (glinne + book, etc =to read)
gorunne   - to bathe
isnne     - to bite; to pierce
          isat - tooth (also spear)
          isar - sharp; biting; piercing
jacusenne - to flirt; to banter
jolernne  - to play; to joke
kaisenne  - to lead
          kaiset - path, road
kedenne   - to scratch
          kedeteo/kedetea - cat
kelisenne - to make; to build; to create; to implement; to construct
          keliset - tool
kemenne  - to learn; to understand
kenne    - to cut
          ket - knife
maganne   - to do; to work; to toil
meranne   - to ascend; to climb/scale; to soar
mesenne   - to see; to visualize
misanne   - to entangle; to snare; to trap
          misardat - jungle
nandanne  - to rule; to govern
          nandat - law; rule
nondanne  - to sleep
oionne    - to rush; to race
oluinne   - to happen; to occur
sarnne    - to teach; to instruct
sebenne   - to love
sitauaienne - to please; to make happy
teiganne  - to float; to elude
ularnne   - to fly

Numbering System

Dragons (shapechangers, at least -- regular dragons don't really have
much use for a numbering system) believe that the existence of Ea is
based on numbers.  Therefore, their numbering system is based on
directional affixes joined to numerical suffixes.


cai                  Here               ca-
gana                 East               ga-
meracai              Up                 mera-
digana               Southeast          diga-
dina                 South              di-
diduna               Southwest          didu-
duna                 West               du-
aaduna               Northwest          aadu-
deicai               Down               dei-
aana                 North              aa-
aagana               Northeast          aaga-

Each digit has both a consonant and a vowel/vowel-preceded representation;
consonant + vowel/vowel preceded = numerical suffix


0                     b                 a
1                     c                 an
2                     d                 e
3                     f                 en
4                     g                 i
5                     h                 in
6                     j                 o
7                     k                 on
8                     l                 u
9                     m                 un
10                    n                 aa
11                    p                 aan


0       ba      11      baan
1       ban     12      caban
2       be      13      cabe
3       ben     14      caben
4       bi      15      cabi
5       bin     16      cabin
6       bo      17      cabo
7       bon     18      cabon
8       bu      19      cabu
9       bun     20      cabun
10      baa     21      cabaa

30      gabu
40      merabon
50      digabo
60      dibin
70      didubi
80      duben
90      aadube
100     deiban
110     deibaan
200     dicon
300     cadaan
400     aaden
500     didufon
1,000   cakaan
1,500   dunun

Numbers after "aagapaan" = 1,666 are expressed by joining numbers in
equations by the use of either "da" (from "danne" - to add) or
"bue" (from "buenne" - to multiply).

Examples:  aagapaan da baa = 1,676
           digapun bue baa = 16,000

Numbers in series are separated by "elh", and the series is terminated by

Example:   Aagapaan da baa elh digapun bue baa elh gaban elb digabaan.
          "One thousand six hundred and seventy-six, sixteen thousand,
           twenty-three and fifty-five."

Ordinal numbers are represented by placing a dash "-" between the number
and the modified word.

Examples:  Ban-Egut = "First Blood"
           Ben-Alemat = "Second Moon"

For anyone who might want a copy of all the numbers from 0 to 1,666,
worked out and suitable for framing, please give me a yell
via e-mail.

Yours in virtuality,

Shai Strouse

Areilya/Inde      [ D R A G O N S ]

Able     - soinne (v.)
Accept   - acinne
Add      - danne
Addition - dat
After    - laseth
And      - elb (used before the last word in a spoken series)
         - eld (used before the last number in a spoken series)
         - elg (for joining two words or phrases only)
         - elh (separates numbers in a spoken series)
         - eli (used for joining two numbers only)
         - eln (separates words in a spoken series)
Animal   - gaurert [plural: gaurerten]
Ascend   - meranne
Barter   - eprinne
Bath     - gorut
Bathe    - gorunne
Be       - eilenne (sentient beings)
           gaurenne (animals/inanimate objects)
Beach    - serisna
Become   - loeilenne (sentient beings)
           loegaurenne (animals/inanimate objects)
Before   - loeth
Big      - keir
Bird     - vot (plural: voten)
Bite     - isnne (v.); iserna (n.) (plural: isernaten)
Black    - efinar
Bleed    - egunne
Blood    - egut
Blue     - eir
Bothark  - boihark
Breath   - niet
Breathe  - nienne
Brief    - gese (brief = for a short time)
Brown    - selar
Bruise   - donanne (v.); donat (n.)
Build    - kelisenne
Burn     - lernne
But      - u
Can      - soir
Cat      - kedetao/kedetaa (plural: kedetaon/kedetaan/kedetaen)
Cause    - iue
Child    - aoretao/aoretaa
Children - aoretaon/aoretaan/aoreten
Choke    - chermisanne r'erdotcai (v. - inflicted upon someone)
           r'erdor (just "happens")
Circle   - chet
Cleanse  - gaenne
Climb    - meranne
Coin     - aiat (plural: aiaten)
Come     - coinne
Conceal  - aginne
Create   - kelisenne
Cure     - genne
Cut      - kenne (v.); ketna (n.)
Darken   - efinanne
Day      - oiorcai
Death    - d'eilet or dagauret
Delight  - sitauaienne (v.), sitauaiet (n.)
Descend  - deinne
Desert   - seriscai
Die      - d'eilenne or dagaurenne
Dirt     - aun (no sing. or plural)
Do       - maganne
Door     - ateit (plural: ateiten)
Down     - deicai
Dragon   - eilert [plural: eilerten]  (sentient being, literally)
Dream    - veltnne (v), velat  (n.)
Dry      - serisar
Dust     - aun (no sing. or plural)
East     - gana
Eastern  - ganar
Eat      - candonne
Else     - sle
Elude    - teiganne
Embrace  - echenne (v.); echet (n.)
Enchant  - erondenne (v.)
           erondet (n.) (plural: erondeten)
Enchanter- erondeao/erondeaa
           Eronder Daerao/Eronder Daeraa (title)
Encircle - chenne
Enclose  - chenne
Entangle - misanne
Enter    - ateinne
Equal    - eileinne (to make equal); eileir (adj.)
Evening  - efinarna
Exchange - eprinne
Eye      - meset (plural: meseten)
Fade     - apenne (v.)
Fall     - deinne (v.); deit (n.) (plural: deiten)
False    - ber
Fast     - coer
Fear     - aord'eilet (n.); aord'eilenne (v.)
Fertile  - buer
Fire     - lert
First    - ban-
Flame    - lert
Flesh    - agireilet (no sing. or plural) - implies scales on dragons
Flirt    - jacusenne (v.); jacuerao/jacueraa (n.)
Float    - teiganne
Fly      - vonne
Food     - candot [no singular or plural]
For      - vi
Forest   - peaaira [singular or plural]
Forever  - vrara
>From     - e
Game     - jolet
Gate     - ateit (plural: ateiten)
Gift     - ecolt
Give     - ecolnne
Glance   - garmeset (n.), garmesenne (v.)
Govern   - nandanne
Great    - keir
Green    - ior (emerald green)
Grow     - danne
Guide    - kaisenne (v.)
           kaiserao/kaiseraa (n.)
           Kaiser Daerao/Kaiser Daeraa (title)
Happen   - oluinne
Hard     - tondar
Harden   - tondanne
Have     - aianne
Heal     - genne
Heat     - ler
He       - aeo
Her      - k'aea
Here     - cai
Hers     - k'aea
Hide     - aginne
His      - k'aeo
Hold     - aianne
Home     - (pronoun) + cai   e.g.  Ieocai/Ieacai ("my home")
Horn     - gaurisart (animal)
Horse    - scov [plural: scovten]
How      - temaga
Hug      - echenne (v); echet (n) (plural: echeten)
Human    - gaurert (regular dragons)/tander eilert (shapechangers)
I        - ieo (masculine)/iea (feminine)
Ice      - tondargaet
Identify - glinne
If       - glaa
In       - na
Increase - danne
Instruct - sarnne
It       - ae
Its      - k'aen
Joke     - jolernne (v.); jolererdot (n.)
Jungle   - misardat
Kapati   - voreusaut [plural: voreusauten]
Knife    - ket (plural: keten)
Language - erdoten
Large    - keir
Law      - nandat
Lead     - kaisenne (v.)
Leader   - kaiserao/kaiseraa
           Kaiser Daerao/Kaiser Daeraa (title)
Learn    - kemenne
Life     - eilet (sentient beings)
         - gauret (animals)
Lips     - sitauaietna (no singular)
Live     - eilenne (sentient beings)
           gaurenne (animals)
Love     - sebenne
Lung     - niecai [plural: niecaiten]
Magic    - erondenne (to make magic)
           erondet (n.) (plural: erondeten)
Magician - erondeao/erondeaa
           Eronder Daerao/Eronder Daeraa (title)
Make     - kelisenne
Marsh    - misargaet [plural: misargaeten]
Melt     - loegausgaenne
Mine     - k'ieo (masculine)/k'iea (feminine)
Money    - aiat (plural: aiaten)
Moon     - alemat (plural: alematen)
Morning  - oiorna
Mouse    - tue  (plural: tueten)
Mountain - see [plural: seeten]
Mouth    - isatcai (plural: isatcaiten)
Move     - ganne
Multiplication - buet
Multiply - buenne
My       - k'ieo (masculine)/k'iea (feminine)
Near     - ast
Net      - chermisanne (v.),chermisat (n.), (plural: chermisaten)
New      - ateir
News     - oluiten
Night    - efinacai
No       - d'na
North    - aana
Northern - aanar
Northeast- aagana
Northeastern - aaganar
Northwest- aaduna
Northwestern - aadunar
Not      - da
Nothing  - d'naya
Occur    - oluinne
Ocean    - kaergaet
Of       - kor (possessive) becomes k' before vowels
         - ra  (non-possessive) becomes r' before vowels
Offer    - ecolnne
On       - ni
One      - ban
Or       - ouso (exculsive)
           ouse (inclusive)
Pale     - apenne (v.); aper (adj.)
Path     - kaiset (plural: kaiseten)
Pet      - aiart (plural: aiarten) refers to animals only
         - aiarya (plural: aiaryaten)  term of endearment
Pierce   - isnne
Piercing - isar
Play     - jolernne (v.)
Player   - jolereo/jolerea
Please   - sitauaienne (to make happy)
Pleasure - sitauaiet
Priest   - kaiserao/kaiseraa ("guide"/lowest level)
           Kaiser Daerao/Kaiser Daeraa ("Sir or Lady Guide"/middle)
           Keis Kaiser Daerao/Keis Kaiser Daeraa
                             ("Skillful Sir or Lady Guide"/upper)
           Ras'eileir Kaiserao/Kaiseraa
                             ("Guide without Equal"/supreme)
           Note that a dragon priest would likely equal a human
           scholar, professor or really good librarian.
Pregnant - buer
Preothai - kaer surga [plural: kaer surgaten]
Property - aiart (plural: aiarten)
Pure     - oior
Purple   - donar
Quicksand- misarseris [no plural or singular]
Race     - oionne (v.); oiot (n.)
Rapids   - oiorgaet (no singular or plural)
Read     - glinne + readable noun
Recognize- glinne
Red      - egur
Reproduce- buenne
River    - gargaet  [plural: gargaet]
Road     - kaiset (plural: kaiseten)
Roast    - selanne (v.)
Rule     - nandanne (v.), nandat (n.)
Run      - coinne
Rush     - oionne (v.)
Sand     - seris  (no singular or plural)
Sandstorm- seris oiorerua
Scale    - meranne (v.)
Scratch  - kedenne (v.); kedet (n.)(plural: kedeten)
Seagull  - vot ra kaergaet [plural: voten ra kaergaet]
Secret   - agir (adj.); agit (n.) [plural: agiten]
See      - mesenne
Shape    - autnne (v.); autet (n.)
Sharp    - isar
She      - aea
Shine    - alemnne (reflect light)
Shore    - serisna
Sing     - eesenne
Skillful - keir
Skin     - agireilet (no sing. or plural) - implies scales on dragons
Sleep    - nondanne(v.); nondat (n.)
Slide    - eusaunne
Slink    - eusaunne
Slip     - eusaunne
Slither  - eusaunne
Small    - aor
Smile    - sitauaietnanne (v.); sitauaietnat (n.)
Snack    - acit (small refreshment offered by host)
Snake    - eusaut (plural: eusauten)
Snare    - misanne (v), misat (n.)  (plural: misaten)
Soar     - meranne
Soil     - aun (no sing. or plural)
Solve    - genne
Song     - eeset (plural: esseten) - more like song + poetry
Soothe   - genne
South    - dina
Southern - dinar
Southeast- digana
Southeastern - diganar
Southwest- diduna
Southwestern - didunar
Speak    - erdonne
Spear    - isart (plural: isarten)
Spider   - surga (plural: surgaten)
Spring   - iorcai
Stairs   - merat
Stairway - meraten
Steal    - geunne
Stone    - tond
Storm    - oiorerua [no singular or plural]
Sunset   - efinana
Swamp    - misargaet [plural: misargaeten]
Swift    - coer
Sword    - keirket (plural: keirketen)
Talk     - erdonne
Take     - acinne
Tan      - selanne (v.); apesselar (adj.)
Teach    - sarnne
Tease    - jacusenne (v.); jacuerao/jacueraa (n.) (sexual connotations)
         - jolernne (v.); jolerao/joleraa (n.) (non-sexual connotations)
That     - oit
Their    - k'aeon (masculine)/k'aean (feminine)/k'aen (mixed or neuter)
These    - oisen
Thirst   - serisar isatcai (n.); aianne serisar istacai (v.)
Thirsty  - serisas isatcair (adj.); aianne serisar isatcai (to be thirsty)
This     - ois
They     - aeon (Masculine)/aean (Feminine)/aen (mixed or neuter)
Those    - oiten
Throat   - erdotcai
To       - ol
Tool     - keliset
Tooth    - isat (plural: isaten)
Toy      - jolet
Trade    - eprinne
Trap     - misanne (v), misat (n.)  (plural: misaten)
True     - rei
Turtle   - tandertondat [plural: tandertondaten]
Uma      - tandertondat ra kaergaet [also: uma, with a plural of umaten]
Understand kemenne
Unicorn  - scov hi gaurisart [also: sund (from xund), plural: sundeten]
Up       - meracai
Walk     - tandenne
Warm     - ler
         - lererua [weather]
Wash     - gaenne
Water    - gaet
We       - ieon (masculine)/iean (feminine)/ien (mixed or neuter)
Weave    - rignne
West     - duna
Western  - dunar
Wet      - gaer
What     - toit
When     - teolui
Where    - tena
While    - tine
White    - oior
Who      - tekeme
Whose    - taia
Why      - teile
Wind     - erua  [no singular or plural]
With     - hi
Without  - rase
Witness  - glinne (v.); glit (n.) [plural: gliten]
Wizard   - keir erondeao/keir erondeaa
           Keis Eronder Daerao/Keis Eronder Daeraa (title)
Word     - erdot
Work     - maganne (v.), magat (n.) (plural: magaten)
Wound    - ketna
Voice    - iine
Yes      - ana
You      - nieo (masculine singular)/niea (feminine singular)
           nieon (masculine plural)/niean (feminine plural)
           nien (mixed or neuter plural)
Your     - kor nieo (masculine)/kor niea (feminine)

Eiler Erdoten


Original-Received: from by Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:53:00 CDT
Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line
Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:53:00 CDT
From: Geoff Tuffli 
To: jrk
Subject: Taeis: Iniel - linguistics & culture

Hettar/C'trel   [ I N I E L ]

(Non-linguistic-techno-geeks are advised to skip.)
The Inielese in fact speak a different language entirely from the rest
of the continent, seemingly possessing a great number of its basic
linguistic roots from the tongue of demons.  Study of Inielese linguistics
is an extremely difficult task, simply because the language is *very* old
and extremely complicated.  Inielic (or, to use the term of the langage
itself, Ilfedh) nouns, verbs, and adjectives are all formed from the same
basic roots.  The Inielic verb "to run" ("olosei"), for example, is formed
from the same root as is the noun "runner" ("oloseiem") -- and, depending
on the situational modifiers and the context it is used in, "oloseiem" can
also be interpreted as "messenger", "fugitive", or "athlete".  This tends
to be somewhat rare in formal situations, where more specific nouns are
used, but is extremely common in casual-style conversation.  The listener
must thus be very conversant with the meaning of modifiers and intonations
to interpret the message correctly.

General Ilfedh pronounciation guide:
a : Usually short English a.  Long a is rare (use "y" instead).
e : Short e or "eh".  Long e (as in "eek!") is uncommon in Ilfedh, except
for use in proper names.
i : Short i ("ih").  Long i ("eye") is unused.
o : Long and short forms both used.  Short tends to be dominant.
u : Short u ("uh") at the beginning of words.  Long u ("you) tends to be
used only in the middle of words.
ie/y: Considered a single verb in Ilfedh.  Usual pronounciation is "ay". 
The Y and IE characters in Ilfedh are identical.  Y is not used in its
normal, long form.  "ie" combinations are almost never prounounced "ee",
thus "oloseiem" /oh-low-say-m/, not /oh-lo-seem/ or /oh-low-say-ee-em/.

st : T *only* appears with s or h in Ilfedh.  This combination is
considered a single character in the Ilfedh alphabet.
ts : The other combination in which t appears with s.  Pronounced as in
"tsk", often with a long u implied on the end, thus becoming a sort of
th : remarkable only for being one of the three allowed uses of t.
dh : Only combination in which d appears in Ilfedh.  Pronounciation is as
"th", but with the d implied at the beginning of the sound (just how loudly
voiced it is varies from town to town and person to person).
x : Standard pronounciation is "ch", thus "xedhel" /che-dth*-ll/.

The characters d, g, j, k, q, t and z do not appear by themselves in Ilfedh
at all.  These sounds simply do not exist in the language.  Inielic
language is generally spoken in soft, quiet tones, and most often with an
abundance of sibilants.  Inielese do not shout or even raise their voice
when speaking (except when under extreme stress), instead expressing their
displeasure through further verb and noun modifiers.  They have thus gained
something of a reputation for inscrutability in the rest of the world, as
it seems to be impossible to cause an Inielese to lose his temper or

Inielese nouns can also be difficult because there are three types of noun,
-reh nouns, -em nouns, and -vel nouns, each of which has nine cases.  For
example, the polite noun "uvelreh", meaning "empire", has the following

        Nominative (subject): uvelreh
        Genitive (of x): uvelfedh
        Dative (to x): uvelval
        Accusative (object): uvelom
        Ablative (by x): uvelnas
        Mittive (from x): uveladh
        Assistive (with x): uvelnal
        Benetive (for x): uvelvedh
        Contentive (in x): uvelxl  

 Ilfedh does not differentiate between singular and plural nouns (or
pronouns, for that matter).  -em and -vel nouns have different case
endings, of course, but one cannot reveal *everything* about
is, after all, a dark and mysterious language known by few outside Iniel.

Verbs are similar in that tense differentiation is made by adding an ending
to the  verb stem.  Ilfedh has eight basic indicative tenses (the
subjunctives are obtained by adding suffixes), present, imperfect, perfect,
and past perfect (in both active and passive).  Ilfedh contains no future
or future perfect tense, nor any method for suggesting knowledge of the
future.  The best one can do is to use a modifier of possibility  or
desire, i.e. "Couldn't it be x?" as opposed to "It will be x.".  This is
indicative of one important element of the Inielese psyche, the desire to
live for the present and the belief in the unpredictability of the future.

In similar vein, there is no second person tense in Ilfedh, only first and
third (singular and plural are, as in nouns, undifferentiated).  This
reflects the intense feelings of xenophobia harbored by most Inielese; one
may be either "I/we" or "he/she/it", a part of the group or an outsider. 
The middle ground is not considered to exist.  This naturally leads to
heavy use of the first person plural by Inielese, i.e. "Why don't we go to
the store?" as opposed to "Would you go to the store?", where the meaning
is *not* specified but implied through context and modifiers.  (In the
above case, "store" would likely have both dative and benetive suffixes,
dative coming first, or, more likely, with the dative used as a prefix and
benetive as a suffix; the implication here is "(to) the store
(for...(me))".)  Such cases inevitably cause problems for new speakers of
Ilfedh who frequently misinterpret the remarks as literal suggestions.  In
some cases, such as a suggestion that x go to bed, this can lead to amusing
results.  Fortunately, most Inielese who have any reason to be associated
with outsiders speak at least the rudiments of the tongue of the Ohs
Empire; many are excellent speakers, with only a slight accent.


Richard Kennaway,