This is all the material I have on Taean languages and culture.
Original-Received: from ellis.uchicago.edu by midway.uchicago.edu Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:11 CDT Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:09 CDT From: Geoff Tuffli
To: jrk Subject: Taeis: Ohs - linguistics LANGUAGE IN THE OHS EMPIRE (v.4) Pronunciation: jh s as in measure (in standard linguistical terms, it is zh) jn said as a dipthong lj said as a dipthong a ah o oh e eh i ee u oo oh said like "ho" except said deeper in your throat, with a stronger "oh" sound, somewhat like huffing the sound ssh said as a dipthong, start by making an "ss" sound then merge it into a "sh" sound ae ah-eh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds eo eh-oh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds ie ee-eh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds ue oo-eh, not quite a dipthong, still two distinct sounds x z, the only word this is used in in modern usage is "xund", or "unicorn" g g as in goat ts ts as in cats th always soft, as in thin (as opposed to the th in there) c gutteral ch is in the Scottish pronunciation of ch in loch, a very uncommon sound ah said like "ha" except huffing slightly as you say it, making it softer ih said like "he" except huffing slightly as you say it, making it softer j j as in jester NOTE: there is no stress, pitch is used to emphasize or convey subtler emotion Grammar: The language has no real distinction between a noun and an adjective. An -i ending is usually the ending of a word or compound word. So, two words, huni (meaning horse, association with horses, or horse-like) and dasi (meaning soldier, fighter, or warrior) could be combined to hundasi or dashuni (note that "dashuni" would be pronounced das-huni, not dash-uni). Hundasi, thus, means horse-warrior, or a mounted soldier. In addition, there is no real pluralization, so hundasi could mean a single horseman or an army of them, or horsemen in general. Expressing plurals relies on attaching to it a word indicating number, either the exact number, or, more commonly, a general one roughly analogous to English's "few", "some", and "many", though somewhat more precise. Compound words can be made up of more than two parts. So, the word raki (meaning bow) could be added to hundasi to form the word "hunrakdasi" or "rakhundasi" or "hundasraki". In actual practice, it should be noted that only one of these possible combinations is used for a particular word. So, a horseman is always referred to as "hundasi", not as "dashuni", though if you were to use the latter compound, you would be understood, although it would sound odd to the listener. Generally, those words which do not take the -i ending are arranged in a slightly different manner. They are grouped as if they were an adjective in front of a noun. This is also sometimes used to emphasize a particular aspect of the compound word. So, the commander of the horsemen in an army (tarni means lord, approximately) would likely be referred to as the Tarn Hundasi. Note that in this case, the -i ending was stripped from tarn. The most relevant aspect of the compound word, if one exists, is placed near the beginning, so Tarn Hundasi would emphasize that the more important aspect was the Tarn-ishness, and only after that they were of horsemen. One could also call such a person a hundastarni, with this de-emphasizing the fact that they are a commander, and placing more importance on their connection with horseman-ness. Verbs do not have, by themselves, any tense or reference to the subject. There is one form, and the only way you can tell its tense is by context or by the presence of another word that indicates when it happens. Noun/Adjectives can be made into verbs by the addition of an ending "sh", that, if the Noun/Adjective ends in a consonent, is instead "ash". Forming a verb this way usually indicates "the process of". So the word for mask, "sha", could be made into the verb "to mask" by adding -th to form "shash". In important note is that there is no verb "to be", rather in the absence of another verb, it is assumed. All verbs, even those without Noun/Adjective roots, end in -sh. The word order is: subject - (indirect object) - object - verb (Poetry, by the way, is almost always designed so as to rhyme from the _beginning_ of a phrase, rather than the end.) Clauses can be added on one after another with only a short pause seperating them from one another. Adverbs are not used at all. To indicate, for example, that an action is done "quickly", one merely adds the necessary word onto the subject. "Kabi", meaning "quickly", added to "oshash" or "to become civilized", would create the verb "to become civilized quickly", or "kaboshash". Vocabulary: The following is a list of the vocabulary that I have come up with. I intend to update it and expand it as I have time. ANIMALS dubogula - dragon xund - unicorn preothai - a non-poisonous spider about 1 foot in diameter that builds amazingly intricate and extensive webs. uma - a large sea turtle about 12 feet in diameter that has been used as a beast or burden. kapati - a flying, poisonous snake. The poison is paralytic. huni - horse pai - a small bird, somewhat like a sparrow resethi - seagull likai - mouse bothark - a huge, lumbering omnivorous creature about 20 feet long covered by huge bony plates and several lines of spikes on its face. Though not bright, it is exceedly vicious, and very strong. They are sometimes used in much the same way as bulls are in Spain. kedishi - jackal prei - spider kapi - snake manisi - cat tibi - fish jhasi - human kebi - rat sasshai - sheep elenbi - cow/bull nename - goat pochai - pig/hog CLOTHING: kutari - a long-sleeved tunic commonly worn by nobles or on formal occassions. Usually has woven into it stylized representations of animals or other simpler designs. It extends over the hips. panakutari - a short-sleeved kutari that is designed to be worn with a sath. sath - a white dress-like garment worn underneath a panakutari. It extends to the wrists and down to the ankles. While it can be worn by both sexes, it is usually only worn by women. Like a kutari, it is slid over the head. umari - pants. They split on either side for a few inches, and necessitate an underbelt to hold them on. An overbelt is usually worn over the kutari itself. tasmatashi - soft leather boots of a kind commonly worn in the Ohs Empire. The soles of the feet are made of specially hardened leather that is segmented into several overlapping pieces to make the entire footwear easier to walk in. It can go as low as the ankle or as high as just below the knee. NATURE: sejn - cliffs or escarpment marn - sea or ocean separai - swamp, fens, or marshland lebai - water ani lebai - river ani - movement or flow korgo - earth or soil batami - wind shimiasi - sand storm iasi - sand gari - rock ejhakiladani - inferno ejhake - warmth or heat dani - fire potam - fertile soil or loam talati - forest or woodland lati - wood COLORS: soti - rust red or blood red tosoti - orange kosoti - orangish-pink ketina - light blue lei - deep blue paryani - yellow ithilyai - purple gloi - black parai - white shintisayaki - gold kothoi - tan or brown kelji - light green hanalji - forest green MILITARY: raki - longbow mavi - skilled or skillful mavraki - elite longbow soldiers of the Ohs Empire dasi - soldier, warrior, or fighter hundasi - elite dragoons of the Ohs Empire shei - weapon used by the hundasi, it is a double-ended sword-spear with four spikes angling out of a right angle below the blade on one of the ends. losshi - army (100,000 soldiers or 10 daumshi) dalosshi - host (all of the losshi raised for a campaign) losshil - grand host pakimi - battlegroup (10 soldiers) dapakimi - cohort (100 soldiers or 10 pakimi) umshi - legion (1000 soldiers or 10 dapakimi) daumshi - regiment (10,000 soldiers or 10 umshi) imnak - sword (two-handed grip, relatively short lengthed blade) thei - axe used in the Ohs Empire, has a triangular blade, one side of which lays face-on the shaft. panathei - axe the size of a small dagger korojhi - spear, used only in the Imperial armies, not in any of the House forces. yomak - blood ENDINGS: -l/il - the most -ka - lacking or without TIME: atana - year of 320 days mesthia - time it takes for Ea to pass by a particular point on the Jovian planet it circles - works out to about 40 days. para - week of 8 days yundi - day ENTERTAINMENT: radi - dancer or entertainer mavi - skilled mavradi - acrobatic dancer-mimes who wear masks and are noted for their incredible skill at dancing/acrobatics and their habit of never speaking and going masked most of the time. sha - mask jhugoloroiri - travelling jugglers/stage-magicians papadai - the colored rubber balls used by jhugoloroiri in their acts foditei - court bard, serves a respected position, often also a Lord's advisor, and often as well as the historian and even at times as a teacher of ethics and morality. tastraba - drum pelipe - flat-harp SORCERY and the MYSTERIES: shadu - spirit, soul, or animus shaduka - one who is without soul, souless sae - mana, the intangible power omnipresent that sorcery taps as a source of enery saemavi - a sorceror saemavil - the most competent sorceror; the title is usually reserved for the ritual-master of the House of the Unicorn. DESCRIPTIVE NOUNS: panai - short or brief spiristi - tall, high, or proud spiristika - humble sshasi - happy or pleased sshasika - grim chayuli - angry chayulil - enraged chayulika - calm falji - long distance or time kabi - quickness or quickly CONSTRUCTIONS: kohn - home, den, or place-of-retreat vatani - fortified place, castle, or wall amani - road zelati - bridge PARTS of the BODY: eshi - back of head or skull patani - face mei - eyes saspi - ears koton - belly or abdomen garaki - chest or ribs haspiki - fingers or hand temdi - arms karei - tongue listhimiki - legs PRONOUNS: hami - me, I, us, or we tomi - you kari - he, she, it, them, or they ** To make pronouns possessive, merely integrate them into object that is being possessed. So "my horse" would be said, "hunhami" ** INDICATIVES: oi - this or these ai - that or those ** These can be used alone, as in, "I want THAT," or they can be used in combination with a word. So in the phrase, "I want THAT TUNIC," the object would be "kutaroi" ** INTERROGATIVES: kanaputai - what manaraputai - who tokiputai - where hokonoputai - why patanaputai - when teloijhuputai - how or in what way na - ending after a verb to indicate that the sentence is a query ** "Whose" would be formed by combining "manaraputai" and the appropriate object. So "whose house" would be "kohnmanaraputai" ** ** "Where is this", for example, would be "tokiputai" and "oi" for "This is where?" or "Oi tokiputai na?" ** CONJUNCTIONS and OTHERS: pa - and ka - or chan - if eba - no or wrong ("nothing" would be "ebai") kaba - yes or correct ("something" would be "kabai") POSTPOSITIONS: kot - while sham - to peloki - from chessh - within ben - on taman - under kras - over yas - around ** These all function as prepositions, except for that they all are placed at the end of a word or clause rather than the beginning as it is in English ** TIME RELATIONS: charn - before or earlier (past) karn - after or later (future) tok - now (present) barana - still CONDITIONS of BEING: lanami - sleep or sleeping gebrani - growing panagebrani - shrinking palari - falling ko - thought or thinking loi - entrance or entering lamani - gift or giving ahsi - glowing ahsika - dampened manai - possessing or holding (implies non-permanence and/or non-ownership) matai - pregnant esatsi - sick elebi - love or loving nalabi - doing dardani - sight or seeing pelebi - play or playing ueni - movement or moving ** Distinguishing whether someone "is grown" as opposed to someone "growing" is done by using different sequences. "Growing" is used as a verb, by adding "-sh" to the root. That someone "is grown" is done by using the "grown" as the object and adding a present tensesual marker ("tok"). So, to say that "I am grown" or "I am grown, now" you would say, "Tok hami gebrani". "I am growing" would be said, "Hami gebranish". ** OTHER WORDS pahn - bowl ohrti - tong-like eating utensil used in the Ohs Empire daparathei - knife (intended mostly for an eating utensil) borga - horns kepichi - saddle hadri - map pohthi - banner More Grammar: Possessives: Possessives can be accomplished in two different ways. The first has already been explained, and is only used with pronouns. Horse, "huni" and me or my, "hami" can be combined in this way to mean "my horse", or "hunhami". The second way is slightly more complex. The expression 'la- is stuck after the possessor and before the object. Furthermore, the -i ending on the possessor is deleted (which is where the ' comes from. So, "my horse" could, in addition to "hunhami", be expressed by saying: ham'la-huni. This can be extended even farther, for example, if you wanted to say "my horse's saddle" you could say either "hunham'la-kepichi" or "ham'la-hun'la-kepichi". In cases where the noun does not end in -i, there are two ways to deal with this, depending upon whether the word ends with "la" already or with some other ending. If the word ends with "la", such as in the word for dragon, or "dubogula", than the 'la- expression is changed to be-. To indicate "the dragon's horns" you would thus say: dubogulabe-borga. Note that the apostraphe is not used, as there is nothing to be replaced. In all other cases where the word ends in something other than -i, the expression becomes merely la-. So the phrase for "the drummer's horse" would be: potastrabala-huni. The expression 'la- is in fact an expression of location, as opposed to expressed ownership. If you wish to make the distinction between owning something as opposed to merely possessing it, use the empression 'za- in place of 'la-. In cases where the word ends in "za" already, the za- is retained, unlike 'la-. Examples: to say "The horse you are riding is mine" in order of most frequently used to least... 1) Huntomi ham'za-huni. 2) Tom'la-huni ham'za-huni. 3) Huntomi hunhami. 4) Tom'la-huni hunhami. Vocabulary (continued): CELESTIAL BODIES ea - the name of the world pelava - the name of the yello-green gas giant planet that Ea circles zara - the sun (it appears smaller than our own due to the distance) puloi - the small moon that orbits between Ea and Pelava krasshei - the third moon of Pelava (including Ea) mern - the fourth moon of Pelava (including Ea) merna - the fifth moon of Pelava (including Ea) toarn - a moon NUMBERS ebai - nothing, none, or zero sor - one hak - two be - three nem - four pajhni - five lar - six laman - seven sutei - eight fan - nine osshla - ten pulassha - hundred hinasshra - thousand kloi - (multiplier indicative) ** Examples: 10 osshla 15 osshla pajhni 32 be-kloi-osshla hak 109 pulassha fan 820 sutei-kloi-pulassha hak-kloi-osshla 3116 be-kloi-hinasshra pulassha osshla lar ** ** Examples of Counting: Four moons. There are four moons. (Moons four are.) Toran nem. Look at the four moons. (You moons-four look.) Tomi torannem meish. NOTE: "meish" is "mei" (eye) + "sh" (verb-ending) **
Original-Received: from ellis.uchicago.edu by midway.uchicago.edu Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:36 CDT Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:51:36 CDT From: Geoff Tuffli
To: jrk Subject: Taeis - Petrocea - linguistics Cather/Rostar firstname.lastname@example.org [ P E T R O C E A ] The Petrocean tongue is a very rich tongue, also very ancient. It is descended directly from the tongue of the Elementals, which are so much a part of life in Petrocea. This is by no means a complete dictionary. I only took random words or words I found I needed to know for MUSH purposes and translated them into Petrocean. More will come out later. As it stands, here is the structure of this file: I. Alphabet A. Pronunciation B. Vowels II. Sentence Structure III. Dictionary A. Nouns B. Verbs C. Descriptive Terms 1) Adjectives/Adverbs 2) Colors 3) Numbers 4) Shapes IV. Special A. Clothing B. Weapons I hope to have the following finished in two days or less: Body parts Weather expressions Greetings Magic-specific words Alphabet -------- a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w y fl sh oa Pronunciation: Letter/Combination English Counterpart --------------------------------------------------- fl sh - shoe sh ss - hiss c hard c - cake ee long a - make a short o - pop o always long o - toad oa unpronouncable by native English-speakers. ua oy - boy e long e - teeth ea short e - bed ar er - helper aa short a - cat uh oo - foot que kay - okay g between two vowels, hard - give otherwise, soft - gel gh z - jazz List of Petrocean Vowels: a,e,i,h,o,u,y,oa Sentence Structure ------------------ Sentence structure is very similar to English: Subject Verb D.O. I.O. Brief listing of Nouns: ----------------------- Eastern Kingdoms - Shal'Pafl'Pufer Iniel - Eanual Ohs Empire - ksoafl Petrocea - Shal'Manto'Armekt admiral - armekt'ua air - altist animal - mir-pe'lloute bay - shal'ua beast - llout being(alive) - viv'pekt being(dead) - pek'viv-pe body - ksuh boy - fej'oxta brain - rebma captain - pefl'ua child - pekt'fej conjurer - falist'oxta conjuress - falist'fert country - shalkt district - shal'keep'mir-pe duchess - keep duchy - shal'keep duke - keep element - manto elemental - mantist emperor - armekt empire - shal'armekt empress - armekt female - cur fire - ertist general - kaat'shal girl - fej'fert hill - alt horse - lloute'ak house - cree king - pefl kingdom - shal'pefl lake - mir-pe'uaksuh land - shal lord - kaat mage - isti male - oxta man - cur'oxta merchant - perst monster - lloute'mir mountain - elst ocean - uaksuh person - pekt queen - pefl river - ki'mir'ua rock - rull sailor - pekt'ua sea - mir'uaksuh soldier - kaat'pekt spirit - reest stone - shal'tist stream - ki'ua thing - stu tool - stu'ilte toy - stu'ilte-pe tree - arb wagon - racosh warlock - marist'oxta water - uatist wind - skept witch - marist'fert wizard - parist'oxta wizardress - parist'fert woman - cur'fert Many of these nouns are compound nouns, formed by tacking a modifier onto it. When a noun(or any word) has a modifier, the modifier is added with a ' between it and the word being modified. Also, some of them have the -pe suffix, usually denoting either 'not' or 'opposite'. In formal Petrocean, singular nouns must be accompanied by a -cu prefix. In normal speech, the prefix is not necessary. Plural nouns _always_ require the del- prefix. Brief Listing of Verbs: ----------------------- ask - cibelsep banish - peltrek be - chotel be gone/be empty - chokitel be sick/ill - oskitel befriend - fiskatosep build - darotrek burn - kutirek create - mirrek curse/swear - mestlesep destroy - atarsrek die/be dead - wortel dislike - akeltsep do - nitorek drop - telrek fall - quelrek fight - risktsep force - neftarsep forget - stapistel frown - fastrek get/pick up - aspirorek give - barsep go - kirek hate - petairsep hit - faradsep kick - peltarsep kill - trakfrek kneel - tostrek know - kalitel learn - skoiestel like - remasep live/be alive - vivtel lose - takirosep love - dopaltsep order - fagelrek promise/take an oath - parsep receive - tarosep remember - bouritel request - gaspirsep ride - aksep run - akenrek say - sotesep send - karrek sit - aritofrek smile - amonrek speak - auktsep stand - porek stay/be still - belarotel summon - astilrek talk - flatleesep understand - paskittel walk - pirek want - desitel win - astasep wish - minorek write - talsrek There are 3 basic infinitive suffixes in Petrocean: -tel - Usually a state of being something. -sep - Normally a verb describing interaction between two things/people. -rek - Usually involves action and/or change. Verbs can be modified by adverbs, discussed in the next section, in the same way as nouns can be modified by adjectives...tacking the modifier onto the word with an '. Verb Conjugation: Infinitive Present Past(recent) Past(distant) Future(near) Future(distant) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- -tel below -tal -til -tol -tyl -rek below -rak -rik -rok -ryk -sep below -sap -sip -sop -syk Present conjugations: Infinitive I You(s) He We You(p) They All None ------------------------------------------------------------------ -tel *drop* -es -lu -no -esh -ku -te -ne -rek -j -es -li -nu -esh -ke -te -ne -sep *drop* -es -ly -ny -esh -ki -te -ne Brief listing of Adjectives/Adverbs: ------------------------------------ alive/live - viv alone - toskep always - temarel angry - kestal apparent - crestal asleep - cembal asleep - cembel awake - ferst bad - narom bare - fantask brave - nelros childish - fejet cold - erst-pe confused - retalp correct - margam courageous - colfe customary - alemsanc dead - viv-pe difficult - bresk disobedient - mistar-pe dry - uast-pe early - sant easy - atil expected - turin fast - rost fat - antok female - fert good - skal grand - lespar great - makt handsome - grella happy - telk heroic - bacor hot - erst imperial - amektal incorrect - margan-pe large - mir late - polst long - relt loud - roist magical - istil male - oxta mandatory - sutme mature - curet merciful - retolk mighty - cather never - peftar noble - pijal noticeable - diphast obedient - mistar obvious - retob often - pretain old - dcur popular - tolnemehar pretty - telsa quick - aresta quiet - falt religious - vlak repulsive - tolk requested - hutmel royal - peflat royal - peflat sad - tel-pe sad - telk-pe scared - pralom seldom - pretain-pe short - relt-pe silent - famen skinny - porast slow - rost-pe small - mir-pe smart - ilt sorry - ceralt stupid - ilt-pe successful - bekare surprised - mastalor terrible - vesarm together - lotok traditional - reestam trustworthy - galtep ugly - comsel unsuccessful - bekare-pe upset - simekta wet - uast young - fej Adverbs are formed quite simply. To form an adverb, you simply add a -ty suffix to the adjective. :) Colors ------ The Petroceans acknowledge only the most basic of colors, with different variations on each, usually using 'dark' or 'light'. The dark/light modifier is 'telpuh'. It goes before the color for light, and after the color for dark. Examples: Red - plok Orange - sur Green - felt Blue - talt Purple - ski Black - skert White - tou Bright red - telpuh'plok Dark purple - ski'telpuh NOTE: Colors always come _after_ the noun they modify. Numbers ------- The Petroceans follow a base ten number system, similar to our own. The fact that it is base ten, however, does not mean it isn't complicated as hell. Only the well educated in Petrocea are able to say a number out loud that is above 100,000 or so. Here is a brief overview of the numbering system, with examples. Numbers: 0 - nal 1 - fel 2 - kiera 3 - ney 4 - kra 5 - eli 6 - mei 7 - tefl 8 - nau 9 - prest 10 - gou 100 - gounal 1000 - karpe 1,000,000 - toram Examples: 13 - gou-ney (10 + 3) 20 - kiera`gou (2 * 10) 46 - kra`gou-mei [(4 * 10) + 6] 105 - gounal-eli (100 + 5) 620 - mei`gounal-kiera`gou [(6 * 100) + (2 * 10)] 5074 - eli`karpe-tefl`gou-kra [(5 * 1000) + (7 * 10) + 4] 408,692 - kra`gounal`karpe-nau`karpe-mei`gounal-prest`gou-kiera [(4 * 100 * 1000) + (8 * 1000) + (6 * 100) + (9 * 10) + 2] 37,329,864 - ney`gou`toram-tefl`toram-ney`karpe-kiera`gou`karpe-prest`karpe-nau`gounal- mei`gou-kra [(3 * 10 * 1,000,000) + (7 * 1,000,000) + (300 * 1000) + (2 * 10 * 1000) + (9 * 1000) + (8 * 100) + 6 * 10) + 4] Yeah, I know it's attrocious. Too bad, this is IT. :) Shapes ------ The word for shape in Petrocean is 'fig'. A shape's name can usually be determined by taking the number of sides the shape has and making it a modifier of the noun 'fig'. Fig'kra...shape with four sides. The word for Square and Rectangle is the same. Examples: Square - fig'kra Rectangle - fig'kra Circle - fig'temar Triangle - fig'ney Octagon - fig'nau Pentagon - fig'eli Hexagon - fig'mei Shape - fig Clothing -------- Following is a brief list of clothing unique to Petrocea, and somewhat popular at this time. Artola - Crown, made of gold for Emperor, silver for Kings. Baskir - Sweeping robes worn by many males of high rank. Usually either red, blue, or black. Entamokt - Loose fitting tunic worn by men. Pelartan - Hose commonly worn by men. Cormaski - Head dress worn by some Warlocks in place of a hood. It completely covers any hair, but the face is much more visible than when a hood is worn. Dampush - Pants worn by men...not as tight as hose, but not as loose as retaska. Retaska - Very loose fitting pants for men. Mofler - A commonly worn hooded robe that affords protection from the elements. Quite popular among sailors. Bask - Multi-purpose, unisex hooded robe. Celtisca - Long flowing dress for women. Usually only worn for ceremonial-type occasions. Nekt - Shorter dress, worn among women of the 'common folk'. Tuhma - Loose tunic worn by some women. Roakeshi - Loose pants, normall worn with a tuhma. Peataruh - Black veil worn by women guilty of adultery. Weapons ------- A short list of some weapons used in Petrocea. Obviously there are quite a few other weapons used, these are just a few of them. quetash - Single edged short sword. Not good for much other than hacking away continually at your opponent's vitals. matergh - Sharp short sword, very popular among sailors. tuhgosh - Dagger, very effective when thrown correctly. Used often by assassins. yeefor - Deadly, small dagger popular among the few magi who deign to carry material defenses. gaalpurna - Sword wiith a long, curved blade and a decorative hilt. terque - Light sword, with a long straight blade. Forged perfectly for use by the Imperial Guard. noktar - Spear carried by foot soldiers of some duchies. noktpuh - Lance popular with cavalry in some duchies. capoflt - Two-handed sword, not widely used by anyone in particular except perhaps mercenaries. Tenaske - All purpose shield, used almost universally throughout the empire.
Original-Received: from ellis.uchicago.edu by midway.uchicago.edu Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:52:26 CDT Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:52:25 CDT From: Geoff Tuffli
To: jrk Subject: Taeis: Eiler Erdoten - linguistics PRONUNCIATION a - fATHer b - bet e - Elephant c - SHeep i - bIt d - Dog o - bOtch f - Father u - lUnch g - Goat h - THud aa - YAk j - aZure ae - JAm k - baCK ai - sAY l - Laugh ao - JAil m - Mother au - lAUrel n - Never p - Pet ea - YEs r - Rain ee - JElly s - Sane ei - sEA t - Tap eo - EOn v - Very eu - EUnuch ia - YIp ie - JIm ii - EYE io - YIkes iu - tissUE oa - YOlk oe - JOlly oi - tOE oo - mOOn ou - cOUgh ua - YOung ue - JUly ui - YOU uo - tOUgh uu - cOW ya - YEAH (used only in one word, "ya" - thing) PRONOUNS, POSSESSIVES, ETC. Ieo - (I, masculine) Iea - (I, feminine) Nieo - (You, masculine) Niea - (You, feminine) Aeo - He Aea - She Ae - It Ieon - (We, masculine) Iean - (We, feminine) Ien - (We, mixed gender) Nieon - (You, masculine) Niean - (You, feminine) Nien - (You, mixed gender) Aeon - (They, masculine) Aean - (They, feminine) Aen - (They, mixed gender or neuter) k'ieo/k'iea - my, mine k'ieon/k'iean/k'ien - our, ours kor nieo/kor niea - your, yours k'aeo - his k'aeon - their, theirs (masculine) k'aea - her, hers k'aean - their, theirs (feminine) k'aen - its k'aen - their, theirs (mixed gender or neuter) Examples: Ois teigat k'aen. This is their boat. This boat is theirs. This boat belongs to them. Oiten teigat k'ieo. Those are my boats. or Those boats are mine. Oiten teigat k'iea. Those boats belong to me. The phrase "Teigaten k'iea" is NOT equivalent to the phrase "Iea aya teigaten". Even though both literally mean "I have some boats", the first phrase implies OWNERSHIP, while the second implies physical POSSESSION. "Iea aya teigaten k'iea." is a phrase which indicates both ownership and physical possession. INDICATIVES Ois - this Oit - that Oisen - these Oiten - those INTERROGATIVES Toit - what Examples: Tekeme - who Taia oisen? = Whose are these? Tena - where Tekeme oit? = Who is that? Taia - whose Toit ois? = What is this? Teile - why Teolui - when Temaga - how CONJUNCTIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS WORDS (CONDITIONALS, ETC.) elg - and (for joining two words or phrases only) eln - and (separates words in a spoken series) elb - and (used before the last word in a spoken series) eli - and (used for joining two numbers only) elh - and (separates numbers in a spoken series) eld - and (used before the last number in a spoken series of numbers) glaa - if ouso - or (exculsive) ouse - or (inclusive) da - not d'na - no d'naya - nothing ber - false ana - yes rei - true verb root + cai = "place" of verb, e.g. geicai = "place of healing" pronoun/noun + na = "place" of pronoun/noun = Ieana = "my home" kor - possessive "of" (becomes k' before vowels) hi - with sle - else keir - large, great, big aor - small, tiny, insignificant TIME-RELATED WORDS loeth - before laseth - after vrara - forever gese - for a short time, brief PREPOSITIONS u - but tine - while ol - to e - from ni - on na - in ra - of (non-possessive) VERBS AND DERIVED WORDS Verb root + nne = infinitive form of the verb Verb root + p (ap) = gerund Verb root + t (at) = noun derivative Verb root + r (ar) = adjective derivative Verb root + s (as) = adverb derivative Verb root + re (are) = past tense (Standard/Informal form) Verb root + ro (aro) = future tense (Standard/Informal form) r (ra) + verb root = passive voice -eo = flag for masculine "I" -ea = flag for feminine "I" -eon = flag for masculine "We" -ean feminine "We" -en mixed "We" -no (-ano) masculine "You" -na (-ana) feminine "You" -non (-anon) masculine "You" (plural) -nan (-anan) feminine "You" (plural) -nen (-anen) mixed "You" -ao He -aa She -ae It -aon masculine "They" -aan feminine "They" -aen mixed "They" cal Tense marker for "present" recal Tense marker for "past" rocal Tense marker for "future" Note: There are several intermediate tense markers, i.e. before and after, but the three markers above are the ONLY ones to determine the tense "flavoring" of the entire phrase or sentence. Sample conjugation: AIANNE = "to have", "to hold" verb root: aia gerund : aiap noun derivatives: aiat - coin/money (plural: aiaten) aiart = pet, possession aiarya = pet, possession (term of endearment) There are several more derivatives!!!! adjective: aiar adverb: aias I. Standard (Informal) Conjugation: Verbs conjugated in the standard/informal manner are hard coded for tense as well as for voice. The passive voice is RARELY used in standard/informal. Also, pronouns may or not precede a conjugated verb in standard/informal form. As a general rule, they DO precede in talking or writing to non-intimates and DO NOT in talking/writing to intimates. Conjugated verbs without pronoun precedents are hard-coded for person. Present Tense: a) With pronoun precedent Ieo/Ie'aia I have Ieon/Iean/Ien aia We have Nieo/Nie'aia You have Nieon/Niean/Nien aia You (plural) have Aeo/Ae'aia/Ae aia He/She/It has Aeon/Aean/Aen aia They have b) Without pronoun precedent aiaeo/aiaea I have aiaeon/aiaean/aiaen We have aiano/aiana You have aianon/aianan/aianen You (plural) have aiaao/aiaaa/aiaae He/she/it has Aiaaon/aiaaan/aiaaen They have Past Tense: a) With pronoun precedent Ieo/Ie'aiare Ieon/Iean/Ien aiare Nieo/Niea aiare Nieon/Niean/Nien aiare Aeo/Ae'aiare/Ae aiare Aeon/Aean/Aen aiare b) Without pronoun precedent aiareeo/aiareea aiareeon/aiareean/aiareen aiareno/aiarena aiarenon/aiarenan/aiarenen aiareao/aiareaa/aiareae aiareao/aiareaan/aiareaen Future Tense: a) With pronoun precedent Ieo/Ie'aiaro Ieon/Iean/Ien aiaro Nieo/Nie'aiaro Nieon/Niean/Nien aiaro Aeo/Ae'aiaro/Ae aiaro Aeon/Aean/Aen aiaro b) Without pronoun precedent aiaroeo/aiaroea aiaroeon/aiaroean/aiaroen aiarono/aiarona aiaronon/aiaronan/aiaronen aiaroao/aiaroaa/aiaroae aiaroaon/aiaroaan/aiaroaen II. Non-Standard (Formal) Conjugation Verbs conjugated in the non-standard/formal manner are hard coded for ONLY voice. And, voice is ALWAYS passive in this form. Tense is "soft-coded"; a tense marker is put forth either as part of a sentence, or as a statement all to itself. The first style is characteristic of dialogue, while the second is of formal writings and decrees. The presented tense marker 'flavors' all of the conjugated verbs which follow it and come before another tense marker (which will ALWAYS be one which will change the tense....if it isn't, it's HORRIBLE GRAMMAR) Pronouns ALWAYS precede a conjugated verb in non-standard/informal form. Therefore, verbs conjugated in this form do not require pronoun flags. Note: The following conjugation is "general formal"; used by social equals. "Very formal" or "Ceremonial" would call for the pronouns being substituted by titles ("very formal") or by Servant/Master ("ceremonial") Ieo/Iea raia had by me Ieon/Iean/Ien raia had by us Nieo/Niea raia had by you Nieon/Niean/Nien raia had by you (plural) Aeo/Aea/Ae raia had by him/her/it Aeon/Aean/Aen raia had by them VERBS AND INTERESTING DERIVATIVES acinne - to accept; to take (after being offered) acit - small refreshment offered by host (hors d'oeuvre) aianne - to have; to hold aginne - to hide; to conceal alemnne - to shine (reflect light) alemat - moon ateinne - to enter ateit - door, gate buenne - to multiply (numbers); to reproduce; to give birth buer - pregnant (female); fertile (cropland, pasture) danne - to add (numbers); to increase; to grow deinne - to descend; to fall chenne - to enclose; to encircle; chet - circle ecolnne - to give; to offer eilenne - to be (sentient beings) eprinne - to exchange erdonne - to speak; to talk; to express erdot - word; erdoten - LANGUAGE erondenne - (to make/work) magic; to enchant (magically) erondet - magic, enchantment, illusion erondeao/erondeaa - magician, enchanter, illusionist keir erondeao/keir erondeaa - "skillful magician" (wizard) Eronder Daerao/Eronder Daeraa= "Magician" (title) Keis Eronder Daerao/Keis Eronder Daeraa = "Wizard" (title) genne - to heal geunne - to steal glinne - to recognize; to identify (glinne + book, etc =to read) gorunne - to bathe isnne - to bite; to pierce isat - tooth (also spear) isar - sharp; biting; piercing jacusenne - to flirt; to banter jolernne - to play; to joke kaisenne - to lead kaiset - path, road kedenne - to scratch kedeteo/kedetea - cat kelisenne - to make; to build; to create; to implement; to construct keliset - tool kemenne - to learn; to understand kenne - to cut ket - knife maganne - to do; to work; to toil meranne - to ascend; to climb/scale; to soar mesenne - to see; to visualize misanne - to entangle; to snare; to trap misardat - jungle nandanne - to rule; to govern nandat - law; rule nondanne - to sleep oionne - to rush; to race oluinne - to happen; to occur sarnne - to teach; to instruct sebenne - to love sitauaienne - to please; to make happy teiganne - to float; to elude ularnne - to fly Numbering System Dragons (shapechangers, at least -- regular dragons don't really have much use for a numbering system) believe that the existence of Ea is based on numbers. Therefore, their numbering system is based on directional affixes joined to numerical suffixes. DIRECTIONS MEANING DIRECTIONAL AFFIXES cai Here ca- gana East ga- meracai Up mera- digana Southeast diga- dina South di- diduna Southwest didu- duna West du- aaduna Northwest aadu- deicai Down dei- aana North aa- aagana Northeast aaga- Each digit has both a consonant and a vowel/vowel-preceded representation; consonant + vowel/vowel preceded = numerical suffix DIGIT CONSONANT VOWEL/VOWEL PRECEDED 0 b a 1 c an 2 d e 3 f en 4 g i 5 h in 6 j o 7 k on 8 l u 9 m un 10 n aa 11 p aan EXAMPLES: 0 ba 11 baan 1 ban 12 caban 2 be 13 cabe 3 ben 14 caben 4 bi 15 cabi 5 bin 16 cabin 6 bo 17 cabo 7 bon 18 cabon 8 bu 19 cabu 9 bun 20 cabun 10 baa 21 cabaa 30 gabu 40 merabon 50 digabo 60 dibin 70 didubi 80 duben 90 aadube 100 deiban 110 deibaan 200 dicon 300 cadaan 400 aaden 500 didufon 1,000 cakaan 1,500 dunun Numbers after "aagapaan" = 1,666 are expressed by joining numbers in equations by the use of either "da" (from "danne" - to add) or "bue" (from "buenne" - to multiply). Examples: aagapaan da baa = 1,676 digapun bue baa = 16,000 Numbers in series are separated by "elh", and the series is terminated by "elb". Example: Aagapaan da baa elh digapun bue baa elh gaban elb digabaan. "One thousand six hundred and seventy-six, sixteen thousand, twenty-three and fifty-five." Ordinal numbers are represented by placing a dash "-" between the number and the modified word. Examples: Ban-Egut = "First Blood" Ben-Alemat = "Second Moon" For anyone who might want a copy of all the numbers from 0 to 1,666, worked out and suitable for framing, please give me a yell via e-mail. Yours in virtuality, Shai Strouse email@example.com Areilya/Inde firstname.lastname@example.org [ D R A G O N S ] Able - soinne (v.) Accept - acinne Add - danne Addition - dat After - laseth And - elb (used before the last word in a spoken series) - eld (used before the last number in a spoken series) - elg (for joining two words or phrases only) - elh (separates numbers in a spoken series) - eli (used for joining two numbers only) - eln (separates words in a spoken series) Animal - gaurert [plural: gaurerten] Ascend - meranne Barter - eprinne Bath - gorut Bathe - gorunne Be - eilenne (sentient beings) gaurenne (animals/inanimate objects) Beach - serisna Become - loeilenne (sentient beings) loegaurenne (animals/inanimate objects) Before - loeth Big - keir Bird - vot (plural: voten) Bite - isnne (v.); iserna (n.) (plural: isernaten) Black - efinar Bleed - egunne Blood - egut Blue - eir Bothark - boihark Breath - niet Breathe - nienne Brief - gese (brief = for a short time) Brown - selar Bruise - donanne (v.); donat (n.) Build - kelisenne Burn - lernne But - u Can - soir Cat - kedetao/kedetaa (plural: kedetaon/kedetaan/kedetaen) Cause - iue Child - aoretao/aoretaa Children - aoretaon/aoretaan/aoreten Choke - chermisanne r'erdotcai (v. - inflicted upon someone) r'erdor (just "happens") Circle - chet Cleanse - gaenne Climb - meranne Coin - aiat (plural: aiaten) Come - coinne Conceal - aginne Create - kelisenne Cure - genne Cut - kenne (v.); ketna (n.) Darken - efinanne Day - oiorcai Death - d'eilet or dagauret Delight - sitauaienne (v.), sitauaiet (n.) Descend - deinne Desert - seriscai Die - d'eilenne or dagaurenne Dirt - aun (no sing. or plural) Do - maganne Door - ateit (plural: ateiten) Down - deicai Dragon - eilert [plural: eilerten] (sentient being, literally) Dream - veltnne (v), velat (n.) Dry - serisar Dust - aun (no sing. or plural) East - gana Eastern - ganar Eat - candonne Else - sle Elude - teiganne Embrace - echenne (v.); echet (n.) Enchant - erondenne (v.) erondet (n.) (plural: erondeten) Enchanter- erondeao/erondeaa Eronder Daerao/Eronder Daeraa (title) Encircle - chenne Enclose - chenne Entangle - misanne Enter - ateinne Equal - eileinne (to make equal); eileir (adj.) Evening - efinarna Exchange - eprinne Eye - meset (plural: meseten) Fade - apenne (v.) Fall - deinne (v.); deit (n.) (plural: deiten) False - ber Fast - coer Fear - aord'eilet (n.); aord'eilenne (v.) Fertile - buer Fire - lert First - ban- Flame - lert Flesh - agireilet (no sing. or plural) - implies scales on dragons Flirt - jacusenne (v.); jacuerao/jacueraa (n.) Float - teiganne Fly - vonne Food - candot [no singular or plural] For - vi Forest - peaaira [singular or plural] Forever - vrara >From - e Game - jolet Gate - ateit (plural: ateiten) Gift - ecolt Give - ecolnne Glance - garmeset (n.), garmesenne (v.) Govern - nandanne Great - keir Green - ior (emerald green) Grow - danne Guide - kaisenne (v.) kaiserao/kaiseraa (n.) Kaiser Daerao/Kaiser Daeraa (title) Happen - oluinne Hard - tondar Harden - tondanne Have - aianne Heal - genne Heat - ler He - aeo Her - k'aea Here - cai Hers - k'aea Hide - aginne His - k'aeo Hold - aianne Home - (pronoun) + cai e.g. Ieocai/Ieacai ("my home") Horn - gaurisart (animal) Horse - scov [plural: scovten] How - temaga Hug - echenne (v); echet (n) (plural: echeten) Human - gaurert (regular dragons)/tander eilert (shapechangers) I - ieo (masculine)/iea (feminine) Ice - tondargaet Identify - glinne If - glaa In - na Increase - danne Instruct - sarnne It - ae Its - k'aen Joke - jolernne (v.); jolererdot (n.) Jungle - misardat Kapati - voreusaut [plural: voreusauten] Knife - ket (plural: keten) Language - erdoten Large - keir Law - nandat Lead - kaisenne (v.) Leader - kaiserao/kaiseraa Kaiser Daerao/Kaiser Daeraa (title) Learn - kemenne Life - eilet (sentient beings) - gauret (animals) Lips - sitauaietna (no singular) Live - eilenne (sentient beings) gaurenne (animals) Love - sebenne Lung - niecai [plural: niecaiten] Magic - erondenne (to make magic) erondet (n.) (plural: erondeten) Magician - erondeao/erondeaa Eronder Daerao/Eronder Daeraa (title) Make - kelisenne Marsh - misargaet [plural: misargaeten] Melt - loegausgaenne Mine - k'ieo (masculine)/k'iea (feminine) Money - aiat (plural: aiaten) Moon - alemat (plural: alematen) Morning - oiorna Mouse - tue (plural: tueten) Mountain - see [plural: seeten] Mouth - isatcai (plural: isatcaiten) Move - ganne Multiplication - buet Multiply - buenne My - k'ieo (masculine)/k'iea (feminine) Near - ast Net - chermisanne (v.),chermisat (n.), (plural: chermisaten) New - ateir News - oluiten Night - efinacai No - d'na North - aana Northern - aanar Northeast- aagana Northeastern - aaganar Northwest- aaduna Northwestern - aadunar Not - da Nothing - d'naya Occur - oluinne Ocean - kaergaet Of - kor (possessive) becomes k' before vowels - ra (non-possessive) becomes r' before vowels Offer - ecolnne On - ni One - ban Or - ouso (exculsive) ouse (inclusive) Pale - apenne (v.); aper (adj.) Path - kaiset (plural: kaiseten) Pet - aiart (plural: aiarten) refers to animals only - aiarya (plural: aiaryaten) term of endearment Pierce - isnne Piercing - isar Play - jolernne (v.) Player - jolereo/jolerea Please - sitauaienne (to make happy) Pleasure - sitauaiet Priest - kaiserao/kaiseraa ("guide"/lowest level) Kaiser Daerao/Kaiser Daeraa ("Sir or Lady Guide"/middle) Keis Kaiser Daerao/Keis Kaiser Daeraa ("Skillful Sir or Lady Guide"/upper) Ras'eileir Kaiserao/Kaiseraa ("Guide without Equal"/supreme) Note that a dragon priest would likely equal a human scholar, professor or really good librarian. Pregnant - buer Preothai - kaer surga [plural: kaer surgaten] Property - aiart (plural: aiarten) Pure - oior Purple - donar Quicksand- misarseris [no plural or singular] Race - oionne (v.); oiot (n.) Rapids - oiorgaet (no singular or plural) Read - glinne + readable noun Recognize- glinne Red - egur Reproduce- buenne River - gargaet [plural: gargaet] Road - kaiset (plural: kaiseten) Roast - selanne (v.) Rule - nandanne (v.), nandat (n.) Run - coinne Rush - oionne (v.) Sand - seris (no singular or plural) Sandstorm- seris oiorerua Scale - meranne (v.) Scratch - kedenne (v.); kedet (n.)(plural: kedeten) Seagull - vot ra kaergaet [plural: voten ra kaergaet] Secret - agir (adj.); agit (n.) [plural: agiten] See - mesenne Shape - autnne (v.); autet (n.) Sharp - isar She - aea Shine - alemnne (reflect light) Shore - serisna Sing - eesenne Skillful - keir Skin - agireilet (no sing. or plural) - implies scales on dragons Sleep - nondanne(v.); nondat (n.) Slide - eusaunne Slink - eusaunne Slip - eusaunne Slither - eusaunne Small - aor Smile - sitauaietnanne (v.); sitauaietnat (n.) Snack - acit (small refreshment offered by host) Snake - eusaut (plural: eusauten) Snare - misanne (v), misat (n.) (plural: misaten) Soar - meranne Soil - aun (no sing. or plural) Solve - genne Song - eeset (plural: esseten) - more like song + poetry Soothe - genne South - dina Southern - dinar Southeast- digana Southeastern - diganar Southwest- diduna Southwestern - didunar Speak - erdonne Spear - isart (plural: isarten) Spider - surga (plural: surgaten) Spring - iorcai Stairs - merat Stairway - meraten Steal - geunne Stone - tond Storm - oiorerua [no singular or plural] Sunset - efinana Swamp - misargaet [plural: misargaeten] Swift - coer Sword - keirket (plural: keirketen) Talk - erdonne Take - acinne Tan - selanne (v.); apesselar (adj.) Teach - sarnne Tease - jacusenne (v.); jacuerao/jacueraa (n.) (sexual connotations) - jolernne (v.); jolerao/joleraa (n.) (non-sexual connotations) That - oit Their - k'aeon (masculine)/k'aean (feminine)/k'aen (mixed or neuter) These - oisen Thirst - serisar isatcai (n.); aianne serisar istacai (v.) Thirsty - serisas isatcair (adj.); aianne serisar isatcai (to be thirsty) This - ois They - aeon (Masculine)/aean (Feminine)/aen (mixed or neuter) Those - oiten Throat - erdotcai To - ol Tool - keliset Tooth - isat (plural: isaten) Toy - jolet Trade - eprinne Trap - misanne (v), misat (n.) (plural: misaten) True - rei Turtle - tandertondat [plural: tandertondaten] Uma - tandertondat ra kaergaet [also: uma, with a plural of umaten] Understand kemenne Unicorn - scov hi gaurisart [also: sund (from xund), plural: sundeten] Up - meracai Walk - tandenne Warm - ler - lererua [weather] Wash - gaenne Water - gaet We - ieon (masculine)/iean (feminine)/ien (mixed or neuter) Weave - rignne West - duna Western - dunar Wet - gaer What - toit When - teolui Where - tena While - tine White - oior Who - tekeme Whose - taia Why - teile Wind - erua [no singular or plural] With - hi Without - rase Witness - glinne (v.); glit (n.) [plural: gliten] Wizard - keir erondeao/keir erondeaa Keis Eronder Daerao/Keis Eronder Daeraa (title) Word - erdot Work - maganne (v.), magat (n.) (plural: magaten) Wound - ketna Voice - iine Yes - ana You - nieo (masculine singular)/niea (feminine singular) nieon (masculine plural)/niean (feminine plural) nien (mixed or neuter plural) Your - kor nieo (masculine)/kor niea (feminine)
Original-Received: from ellis.uchicago.edu by midway.uchicago.edu Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:53:00 CDT Pp-Warning: Illegal Received field on preceding line Date: Fri, 12 Jun 92 19:53:00 CDT From: Geoff Tuffli
To: jrk Subject: Taeis: Iniel - linguistics & culture Hettar/C'trel email@example.com [ I N I E L ] INIELIC LANGUAGE (Non-linguistic-techno-geeks are advised to skip.) The Inielese in fact speak a different language entirely from the rest of the continent, seemingly possessing a great number of its basic linguistic roots from the tongue of demons. Study of Inielese linguistics is an extremely difficult task, simply because the language is *very* old and extremely complicated. Inielic (or, to use the term of the langage itself, Ilfedh) nouns, verbs, and adjectives are all formed from the same basic roots. The Inielic verb "to run" ("olosei"), for example, is formed from the same root as is the noun "runner" ("oloseiem") -- and, depending on the situational modifiers and the context it is used in, "oloseiem" can also be interpreted as "messenger", "fugitive", or "athlete". This tends to be somewhat rare in formal situations, where more specific nouns are used, but is extremely common in casual-style conversation. The listener must thus be very conversant with the meaning of modifiers and intonations to interpret the message correctly. General Ilfedh pronounciation guide: a : Usually short English a. Long a is rare (use "y" instead). e : Short e or "eh". Long e (as in "eek!") is uncommon in Ilfedh, except for use in proper names. i : Short i ("ih"). Long i ("eye") is unused. o : Long and short forms both used. Short tends to be dominant. u : Short u ("uh") at the beginning of words. Long u ("you) tends to be used only in the middle of words. ie/y: Considered a single verb in Ilfedh. Usual pronounciation is "ay". The Y and IE characters in Ilfedh are identical. Y is not used in its normal, long form. "ie" combinations are almost never prounounced "ee", thus "oloseiem" /oh-low-say-m/, not /oh-lo-seem/ or /oh-low-say-ee-em/. st : T *only* appears with s or h in Ilfedh. This combination is considered a single character in the Ilfedh alphabet. ts : The other combination in which t appears with s. Pronounced as in "tsk", often with a long u implied on the end, thus becoming a sort of "tsuu". th : remarkable only for being one of the three allowed uses of t. dh : Only combination in which d appears in Ilfedh. Pronounciation is as "th", but with the d implied at the beginning of the sound (just how loudly voiced it is varies from town to town and person to person). x : Standard pronounciation is "ch", thus "xedhel" /che-dth*-ll/. The characters d, g, j, k, q, t and z do not appear by themselves in Ilfedh at all. These sounds simply do not exist in the language. Inielic language is generally spoken in soft, quiet tones, and most often with an abundance of sibilants. Inielese do not shout or even raise their voice when speaking (except when under extreme stress), instead expressing their displeasure through further verb and noun modifiers. They have thus gained something of a reputation for inscrutability in the rest of the world, as it seems to be impossible to cause an Inielese to lose his temper or composure. Inielese nouns can also be difficult because there are three types of noun, -reh nouns, -em nouns, and -vel nouns, each of which has nine cases. For example, the polite noun "uvelreh", meaning "empire", has the following forms: Nominative (subject): uvelreh Genitive (of x): uvelfedh Dative (to x): uvelval Accusative (object): uvelom Ablative (by x): uvelnas Mittive (from x): uveladh Assistive (with x): uvelnal Benetive (for x): uvelvedh Contentive (in x): uvelxl Ilfedh does not differentiate between singular and plural nouns (or pronouns, for that matter). -em and -vel nouns have different case endings, of course, but one cannot reveal *everything* about Ilfedh...it is, after all, a dark and mysterious language known by few outside Iniel. Verbs are similar in that tense differentiation is made by adding an ending to the verb stem. Ilfedh has eight basic indicative tenses (the subjunctives are obtained by adding suffixes), present, imperfect, perfect, and past perfect (in both active and passive). Ilfedh contains no future or future perfect tense, nor any method for suggesting knowledge of the future. The best one can do is to use a modifier of possibility or desire, i.e. "Couldn't it be x?" as opposed to "It will be x.". This is indicative of one important element of the Inielese psyche, the desire to live for the present and the belief in the unpredictability of the future. In similar vein, there is no second person tense in Ilfedh, only first and third (singular and plural are, as in nouns, undifferentiated). This reflects the intense feelings of xenophobia harbored by most Inielese; one may be either "I/we" or "he/she/it", a part of the group or an outsider. The middle ground is not considered to exist. This naturally leads to heavy use of the first person plural by Inielese, i.e. "Why don't we go to the store?" as opposed to "Would you go to the store?", where the meaning is *not* specified but implied through context and modifiers. (In the above case, "store" would likely have both dative and benetive suffixes, dative coming first, or, more likely, with the dative used as a prefix and benetive as a suffix; the implication here is "(to) the store (for...(me))".) Such cases inevitably cause problems for new speakers of Ilfedh who frequently misinterpret the remarks as literal suggestions. In some cases, such as a suggestion that x go to bed, this can lead to amusing results. Fortunately, most Inielese who have any reason to be associated with outsiders speak at least the rudiments of the tongue of the Ohs Empire; many are excellent speakers, with only a slight accent.