The Longman Defining Vocabulary

From Longman Dictionary (1988). Spellings have been anglicized. 2197 words, 10 prefixes, 39 suffixes.

This is the set of words which the Longman English Dictionary uses to express all its definitions. As such, it may be a useful source of basic vocabulary for the designer of an artificial language.


If a word has a specific word class label it is used in definitions only in the word class shown. Otherwise the word may be used in any of its usual word classes.

A = Adjective
Av = Adverb
C = Conjunction
D = Determiner
P = Preposition
Pd = Predeterminer
Pn = Pronoun
N = Noun
V = Verb


a, ability, about, above AvP, abroad, absence, absent A, accept, acceptable, accident, accordance, according, according to, account, ache, acid, across, act, action N, active A, activity, actor, actress, actual, add, addition, address, adjective, admiration, admire, admit, admittance, adult, advance NV, advantage, adventure N, adverb, advertise, advertisement, advice, advise, affair, afford, afraid, after AvCP, afternoon, afterwards, again, against, age N, ago, agree, agreement, ahead, aim, air N, aircraft, airforce, airport, alcohol, alike, alive, all AvDPdPn, allow, almost, alone, along, aloud, alphabet, already, also, although, altogether Av, always, among, amount N, amuse, amusement, amusing A, an, ancient A, and, anger N, angle N, angry, animal, ankle, annoy, annoyance, another, answer, ant, anxiety, anxious, any, anyhow, anyone, anything, anywhere, apart, apparatus, appear, appearance, apple, appoint, approval, approve, arch N, area, argue, argument, arm, armor N, arms, army, around, arrange, arrangement, arrival, arrive, art, article, artificial, as, ash, ashamed, aside Av, ask, asleep, association, at, atom, attack, attempt, attend, attendance, attention, attract, attractive, aunt, autumn, average AN, avoid, awake A, away Av, awkward, baby, back AAvN, background, backward Av, backwards Av, bacteria, bad A, bag N, bake, balance, ball N, banana, band N, bank N, bar NV, bare A, barrel, base NV, basket, bath N, bathe V, battle N, be, beak, beam N, bean, bear, beard N, beat NV, beautiful, beauty, because, become, bed N, bee, beer, before, beg, begin, beginning, behave, behavior, behind AvP, belief, believe, bell, belong, below AvP, belt N, bend, beneath, berry, beside, besides, best AAvN, better AAv, between, beyond AvP, bicycle N, big A, bill N, bind V, bird, birth, birthday, bit, bite, bitter A, black AN, blade, blame, bleed, bless, blind, block, blood N, blow, blue, board N, boat N, body, boil V, bomb, bone N, book N, boot N, border, born, borrow, both, bottle N, bottom N, bowels, bowl, box, boy, brain N, branch, brass, brave A, bread, breadth, break V, breakfast N, breast N, breath, breathe, breed, brick N, bridge N, bright A, bring, broad A, broadcast, brother, brown AN, brush, bucket N, build V, building, bullet, bunch N, burial, burn, burst, bury, bus N, bush N, business, busy, but C, butter N, button N, buy V, by, cage N, cake N, calculate, calculator, call, calm A, camera, camp NV, can NV, candle, cap N, capital N, captain N, car, card N, cardboard, care, careful, careless, carriage, carry, cart N, case N, castle N, cat, catch V, cattle, cause, cell, cement N, cent, center N, centimeter, central, century, ceremony, certain AD, chain, chair N, chairperson, chalk N, chance N, change, character, charge, charm, chase V, cheap, cheat, check [cheque], cheek N, cheer, cheerful, cheese, chemical, chemistry, chest, chicken N, chief, child, childhood, children, chimney, chin, chocolate, choice N, choose, church N, cigarette, cinema, circle N, circular A, citizen, city, civilization, claim, class N, clay, clean AV, clear AV, clerk, clever, cliff, climb V, clock N, clockwork, close AAvV, cloth, clothes, clothing, cloud N, club N, coal, coast N, coat N, coffee, coin N, cold, collar N, collect V, college, color, comb, combination, combine V, come, comfort, comfortable, command, committee, common A, companion, company, compare V, comparison, compete, competition, competitor, complain, complaint, complete, compound N, computer, concern V, concerning, concert, condition N, confidence, confident, confuse, connect, conscience, conscious, consider, consist, consonant N, contain, contents N, continue, continuous, contract N, control, convenient, conversation, cook, cool A, copper, copy, cord N, corn, corner N, correct A, cost, cotton, cough, could, council, count V, country N, courage, course N, court N, cover, cow N, coward, cowardly, crack NV, crash NV, cream N, creature, creep V, cricket, crime, criminal, crop N, cross NV, crowd N, cruel, cruelty, crush V, cry, cultivate, cup N, cupboard, cure, curl, current, curse, curtain, curve, custom N, customer, cut, cycle V, daily AAv, damage, dance, danger, dangerous, dare V, daring, dark, date N, daughter, day, dead A, deal, dear A, death, debt, decay, deceit, deceive, decide, decimal, decision, declaration, declare, decorate, decoration, decrease, deep A, deer, defeat, defend, defense, degree, delay, delicate, delight, deliver, demand, department, depend, dependent, depth, descend, describe, description, descriptive, desert N, deserve, desirable, desire, desk, destroy, destruction, detail N, determination, determined, develop, devil N, diamond, dictionary, die V, difference, different, difficult, difficulty, dig V, dinner, dip V, direct, direction, dirt, dirty A, disappoint, discourage, discouragement, discover, discovery, dish N, dismiss, distance N, distant, ditch N, divide V, division, do V, doctor N, dog N, dollar, door, doorway, dot N, double AAvPdV, doubt, down AAvP, drag V, draw V, drawer, dream, dress NV, drink, drive V, drop, drown, drug N, drum N, drunk, dry, duck N, dull A, during, dust N, duty, each, eager, ear, early, earn, earth N, east, eastern, easy, eat, edge N, educate, education, effect N, effective, effort, egg N, eight, eighth, either, elastic, elbow N, elect V, election, electric, electricity, elephant, else, employ V, employer, employment, empty AV, enclose, enclosure, encourage, encouragement, end, enemy, engine, engineer N, English, enjoy, enjoyment, enough, enter, entertain, entertainment, entrance N, envelope, equal ANV, equality, escape, especially, establish, establishment, even AAv, evening, event, ever, every, everyone, everything, everywhere, evil, exact A, examination, examine, example, excellent, except CP, exchange, excite, excited, exciting, excuse, exercise, exist, existence, expect, expensive, experience, explain, explanation, explode, explosion, explosive, express V, expression, extreme, eye, eyelid, face, fact, factory, fail V, failure, faint AV, fair A, fairy, faith, faithful A, fall, false A, fame, familiar A, family, famous, fancy A, far, farm, farmer, farmyard, fashion N, fashionable, fast AAv, fasten, fat, fate, father N, fault, favor N, favorable, favorite A, fear, feather N, feed V, feel V, feeling, feelings, fellow N, female, fence N, fever, few, field N, fierce, fifth, fight, figure N, fill V, film, find V, fine A, finger N, finish, fire, fireplace, firm AN, first AvD, fish, fisherman, fit AV, five, fix V, flag N, flame, flash NV, flat, flesh, flight, float V, flood, floor N, flour, flow, flower N, fly NV, fold, follow, fond, food, fool N, foolish, foot N, football, footpath, footstep, for P, forbid, force, forehead, foreign, foreigner, forest, forget, forgive, fork N, form, formal, former, formerly, fort, fortunate, fortune, forward Av, forwards Av, four, fourth, fox N, frame N, free, freedom, freeze V, frequent A, fresh, friend, friendly, frighten, frightening, from, front AN, fruit N, fulfill, full A, fun, funeral, funny, fur N, furnish, furniture, further AAv, future, gain V, game N, garage N, garden, garment, gas N, gasoline [petrol], gate N, gather V, general, generous, gentle, gentleman, get, gift, girl, give V, glad, glass AN, glory N, glue, go V, goat, god, God, gold, golden, good, good-bye, goods, govern, government, grace, graceful, gradual, grain, gram, grammar, grand A, grandfather, grandmother, grass N, grateful, grave N, gray AN, great, green, greet, greeting, grief, grieve, ground N, group N, grow, growth, guard, guess, guest, guidance, guide, guilt, gun N, habit, habitual, hair, hairy, half, hall, hammer N, hand, handkerchief, handle, hang V, happen V, happy, hard, harden, hardly, hardship, harm, harmful, harmless, hasty, hat, hate V, hatred, have, he, head AN, health, healthy, hear, heart, heat, heaven, heavy A, heel, height, help, helpful, hen, her, here, hers, herself, hide V, high AAv, hill, him, himself, hire, his, historical, history, hit, hold, holiday, hollow A, holy, home AvN, honest, honesty, honor N, honorable, hook N, hope, hopeful, hopeless, horizon, horn, horse N, hospital, host N, hot A, hotel, hour, hourly, house N, how Av, human, humor, humorous, hundred, hundredth, hunger N, hungry, hunt V, hurry, hurt V, husband N, hut, I, ice N, icy, idea, if, ill A, image, imaginary, imagination, imagine, importance, important, improve, improvement, in AvP, include, including, income, increase, indoor, indoors, industrial, industry, infect, infection, infectious, influence, influential, inform, information, ink N, inner, inquire, inquiry, insect, inside, instead, instruct, instruction, instrument, insurance, insure, intend, intention, interest, interesting, international A, interrupt, interruption, into, introduce, introduction, invent, invention, invitation, invite, inwards, iron AN, island, it Pn, its, itself, jaw N, jealous, jealousy, jelly, jewel, jewelry, job, join, joint, joke, journey N, joy, judge, judgment, juice, jump, just, justice, keen, keep V, key N, kick, kill V, kilo, kilogram, kilometer, kind, king, kingdom, kiss, kitchen, knee N, kneel, knife N, knock, knot, know V, knowledge, labor N, lack, ladder N, lady, lake, lamb, lamp, land, language, large, last AvDV, late, lately, laugh, laughter, law, lawyer, lay V, lazy, lead N, lead V, leaf N, lean V, learn, least, leather, leave V, left, leg N, legal, lend, length, less AvDPn, lesson, let V, letter, level AAvN, library, lid, lie, life, lift, light, lightning, like PV, likely, limb, limit, line N, lion, lip, liquid, list N, listen V, liter, literature, little, live V, load, loaf N, local A, lock, lodging, lodgings, log N, lonely, long AAv, look, loose A, lord N, lose, loss, lot, loud, love, low A, lower V, loyal, loyalty, luck N, lump N, lung, machine N, machinery, mad, magazine, magic, magician, mail, main A, make V, male, man N, manage, manager, manner, many, map N, march, mark, market N, marriage, marry, mass N, master N, mat, match, material, matter, may V, me, meal, mean V, meaning N, means, measure, meat, medical A, medicine, meet V, meeting, melt, member, memory, mend V, mention V, merry, message, messenger, metal N, meter, method, metric, microscope, middle AN, might V, mile, military A, milk, million, millionth, mind, mine NPn, mineral, minister N, minute N, mirror N, miss V, mist N, mistake, mix V, mixture, model N, modern A, moment, money, monkey N, month, monthly AAv, moon N, moral A, morals, more, morning, most, mother N, motor AN, mountain, mouse, mouth N, move V, much, mud, multiply, murder, muscle N, music, musician, must V, my, myself, mysterious, mystery, nail, name, narrow A, nasty, nation, national A, nature, naval, navy, near AAvP, nearly, neat, necessary, neck, need, needle N, neighbor, neighborhood, neither, nerve N, nervous, nest N, net N, network N, never, new, news, newspaper, next AAv, nice, night, nine, ninth, no AvD, no one, noble A, nobleman, noise N, none Pn, nonsense, nor, north, northern, nose N, not, nothing, notice, noun, now, nowhere, number N, nurse, nut, nylon, o'clock, obedience, obedient, obey, object N, obtain, occasion N, ocean, odd, of, off AvP, offend, offense, offensive A, offer, office, officer, official, often, oil, old, old-fashioned, on AvP, once Av, one, oneself, onion, only, open AV, operate, operation, opinion, opponent, oppose, opposite, opposition, or, orange, order, ordinary, organ, organization, origin, other, otherwise, ought, our, ours, ourselves, out AAv, outdoor, outdoors, outer, outside, over AvP, owe, owing to, own DPnV, oxygen, pack V, packet, page N, pain N, painful, paint, painting, pair N, palace, pale A, pan N, paper N, parallel AN, parcel N, parent N, park, parliament, part N, participle, particular A, partner N, party N, pass V, passage, passenger, past, pastry, path, patience, patient A, pattern N, pause, pay, payment, peace, peaceful, pen N, pence, pencil N, people N, pepper N, per, perfect A, perform, perhaps, period N, permission, permit V, person, personal, persuade, pet N, photograph, photography, phrase N, physical, piano N, pick V, picture N, piece N, pig N, pile, pilot, pin, pink AN, pipe N, pity, place, plain AN, plan, plane N, plant, plastic, plate N, play, pleasant, please, pleased, pleasure N, plenty Pn, plural, pocket N, poem, poet, poetry, point, pointed, poison, poisonous, pole N, police N, polish, polite, political, politician, politics, pool N, poor, popular, popularity, population, port N, position N, possess, possession, possibility, possible A, possibly, post, pot N, potato, pound N, pour, powder N, power N, powerful, practical, practice, praise, pray, prayer, precious A, preparation, prepare, presence, present AN, preserve V, president, press V, pressure N, pretend, pretty A, prevent, price N, prickly, pride N, priest, prince, principle, print, prison, prisoner, private A, prize N, probability, probable A, problem, process N, procession, produce V, product, production, profession, profit N, promise, pronounce, pronunciation, proof N, proper, property, protect, protection, protective, proud, prove, provide, provision, provisions, public, pull, pump, punish, punishment, pupil, pure, purple, purpose N, push, put, quality, quantity, quarrel, quarter N, queen N, question, quick A, quiet AN, quite, rabbit N, race, radio N, railway, rain, raise V, range N, rank N, rapid A, rare, rat N, rate N, rather, raw A, reach, read V, ready A, real, really, reason, reasonable, receive, recent, recently, recognition, recognize, record NV, red, reduce, reduction, refusal, refuse V, regard, regular A, related, relation, relative, religion, religious, remain, remark N, remember, remind, remove V, rent, repair, repeat V, reply, report, represent, representative, republic, request, respect, respectful, responsible, rest, restaurant, result, return NV, reward, rice, rich, rid, ride, right ANAv, ring, ripe, rise V, risk, river, road, rob, rock N, rod, roll V, roof N, room N, root N, rope N, rose, rough A, round AAvP, row NV, royal A, rub V, rubber, rude, ruin, rule, ruler, run, rush, sad, safe A, safety, sail, sale, salt AN, same, sand N, satisfaction, satisfactory, satisfy, save V, say V, scale N, scatter V, scene, scenery, school N, science, scientific, scientist, scissors, screw, sea, search, season N, seat, second AvDNPn, secrecy, secret, secretary, see V, seed N, seem, seize, sell V, send, sensation, sense N, senseless, sensible, sensitive, sentence N, separate AV, serious, servant, serve, service N, set NV, settle V, seven, seventh, several, severe, sew, sex N, sexual, shade, shadow N, shake, shall, shame N, shape, share, sharp A, she, sheep, sheet, shelf, shell N, shelter, shield N, shine V, ship N, shirt, shock NV, shoe N, shoot V, shop, shopkeeper, shore N, short A, shot N, should, shoulder N, shout, show NV, shut, sick A, side AN, sideways, sight N, sign, signal, signature, silence N, silent, silk, silly A, silver, similar, similarity, simple, since, sincere, sing, single A, singular, sink V, sister, sit, situation, six, sixth, size N, skill, skillful, skin N, skirt N, sky N, slave N, sleep, slide V, slight A, slip V, slippery, slope, slow, small, smell, smile, smoke, smooth A, snake N, snow, so, soap N, social A, society, sock N, soft, soil N, soldier N, solemn, solid, some DPn, somehow, someone, something, sometimes, somewhere, son, song, soon, sore A, sorrow N, sorry, sort N, soul, sound NV, soup, sour A, south, southern, space N, spacecraft, spade, speak, spear N, special A, specialist, speech, speed N, spell V, spend, spin V, spirit N, spite N, splendid, split V, spoil V, spoon N, sport N, spot N, spread V, spring, square AN, stage N, stair, stamp, stand V, standard, star N, start, state, station N, stay, steady A, steal V, steam N, steel N, steep A, stem N, step, stick, sticky, stiff A, still AAv, sting, stitch, stomach N, stone N, stop, store, storm N, story, straight AAv, strange, stranger, stream N, street, strength, stretch, strike V, string N, stroke N, strong, structure N, struggle, student, study, stupid, style N, subject N, substance, subtract, succeed, success, successful, such, suck V, sudden, suffer, sugar N, suggest, suit, suitable, sum N, summer N, sun N, supper, supply NV, support, suppose, sure A, surface N, surprise, surround V, swallow V, swear, sweep V, sweet, swell V, swim, swing, sword, sympathetic, sympathy, system, table N, tail N, take V, talk, tall, taste, tax, taxi N, tea, teach, team N, tear V, tear N, telephone, television, tell, temper N, temperature, temple, tend, tendency, tender A, tennis, tense N, tent, terrible, terror, test, than, thank, that CDPn, the, theater, their, theirs, them, themselves, then Av, there, therefore, these, they, thick A, thief, thin A, thing, think V, third, thirst N, thirsty, this DPn, thorough, those, though, thought, thousand, thousandth, thread N, threat, threaten, three, throat, through AvP, throw, thumb N, thunder, thus, ticket N, tidy AV, tie, tiger, tight A, time N, timetable N, tin, tire [tyre] N, tire V, title N, to, tobacco, today, toe N, together, tomorrow, tongue, tonight, too, tool N, tooth, top AN, total AN, touch, tour, tourist, towards, tower N, town, toy N, track, trade N, traffic N, train, translate, transparent, trap, travel, treat V, treatment, tree, tremble V, tribe, trick NV, trip N, tropical, trouble, trousers, true A, trunk, trust, truth, try V, tube, tune N, turn, twice, twist, type N, typical, ugly, uncle, under P, understand, undo, uniform N, union, unit, unite, universal, universe, university, until, up AAvP, upper A, upright AAv, upset V, upside down, upstairs AAv, urge, urgent, us, use, useful, useless, usual, valley, valuable A, value N, variety, various, vary, vegetable, vehicle, verb, very Av, victory, view N, village, violence, violent, visit, voice N, vote, vowel, voyage N, wages, waist, wait V, waiter, wake V, walk, wall N, wander, want V, war N, warm AV, warmth, warn, wash, waste, watch, water, wave, way, we, weak, wealth, weapon, wear V, weather N, weave V, wedding, week, weekly AAv, weigh, weight N, welcome, well AAvN, west, western A, wet A, what, whatever, wheat, wheel N, when AvC, whenever, where, whether, which, whichever, while C, whip, whisper, whistle, white, who, whoever, whole, why, wicked, wide AAv, widespread, width, wife, wild AAv, will, willing, win V, wind V, wind N, window, wine N, wing N, winter N, wire N, wisdom, wise A, wish, with, within P, without P, witness N, woman, wonder NV, wood, wooden, wool, woolen, word N, work, world, worm N, worry, worse, worship, worst, worth, worthy, worthy of, would, wound, wrap V, wreck, wrist, write, wrong AAvN, wrongdoing, yard, year, yearly, yellow AN, yes, yesterday, yet, you, young, your, yours, yourself, youth, zero


dis-, im-, in-, ir-, mid-, mis-, non-, re-, self-, un-


-able, -al, -an, -ance, -ar, -ate, -ation, -ed, -en, -ence, -er, -ery, -ess, -ful, -ible, -ic, -ical, -ing, -ion, -ish, -ist, -ity, -ive, -ization -ize -less -like -ly -ment -ness -or -ous -ry -ship -th -ward -wards -work -y

Richard Kennaway,